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March 21, 2019 0 Comment

Title: Avocado (Persea americana) and Star Apple (Chrysophyllum cainito) Exocarps used as an AdhesiveProponents: John Michael T. Benemile, Michael Z. BongatRESEARCH PLAN
A. Rationale:
Adhesive is a wet substance that is used for sticking things together. It is usually a wet mixture of powder and liquid. An adhesive is a material used for holding two surfaces together. An adhesive must wet the surfaces, adhere to the surfaces, develop strength after it has been applied, and remain stable. A useful way to classify adhesives is by the way they react chemically after they have been applied to the surfaces to be joined. (Packer, John, n,d) The researcher aims to make an eco-friendly paste out of watermelon exocarps and carrot exocarps. Liquid adhesive or paste is usually made up of vegetable starch and water. Latex usually can be found in the plant sap of flowering plants.
Avocado is a tree, originated in South Central Mexico. Its fruit is a large berry containing a single large seed. Avocado is known for having a large amount of latex in the skin of its fruit. Avocado fruit belong to the top highest latex content in the list of foods.

Star apple is a tropical tree from the family Sapotaceae and now grown throughout the tropics like South East Asia. This fruit’s skin is rich in latex and both it and the rind are not edible. The fruit also exist in three colors, dark purple, greenish brown and yellow. Star apple may contain 35 grams to 60 grams of starch that is needed to make an adhesive.

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B. Research Question / Hypotheses / Engineering Goals / Expected Outcomes
Research Questions:
This study tries to answer the following question(s):
1: Can the product bind different kinds of paper?
2: How long will it take the product to dry?
3: How effective will the product as a paste?
4 Does the period of drying affect the product’s bond strength?
Hypotheses:
Null Hypothesis (H0)
Product cannot bind paper with smoother texture and thicker materials.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1)
The product’s bond strength level is high and the product will be dry in less than a minute.

3. Expected Outcomes
The inexpensive paste will be effective to any paper surfaces and the level of the bond strength is high. The product will be used by many of the citizen because it is environmental friendly and at the same time, cheap.

C.a. Methodology
i. Materials
The researchers will prepare the following materials: 3 kilo of avocado, 3 kilo of star apple and Mortar and pestle.
ii. Preparation of Materials
The materials used in making the paste will be purchased such as: 3 kilo of avocado and 3 kilo of star apple to get its exocarps.
iii. Procedure
First, the researchers will take the exocarps of avocado by peeling it off including the small parts from the avocado’s outer flesh. The peeled avocado will be sliced into smaller pieces to fit and then pound using mortar and pestle. While the star apple will be peel off its exocarp using knife then also be pounded to create a mushy form. All of these were done simultaneously.

Next, the 50g avocado will be put on the pot together with the 50 mL of water for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes, the star apple’s exocarp will be added in the pot and then together, the both was left to boil for 15 minutes until the water in the pot was completely gone.

After 15 minutes, the mixture will be put into a blender to be able to crush the hard pieces of avocado in the mixture. Then the mixture will be pounded again using the mortar and pestle until it gave off the texture similar to a paste.

Testing of the product
The mixture of avocado and star apple exocarps will be applied to different surface of paper like: bond paper, art paper, Manila paper, glossy paper and Oslo paper.

The efficacy of the paste’s bond strength will be tested by applying the product to different kinds of paper with different surfaces such as:
Bond paper
Art paper
Manila paper
Glossy paper
Oslo paper
The bond strength created by the product will be measured using different levels of wind using the anemometer. There are three levels: level 1 will be tested with 4m/s; level two is 5m/s and level three is 6m/s.

For the drying duration, the researchers will measure it using a timer while its left to dry while bonded. The relationship between drying duration and bond strength will be proven using a Spearman Rank-Order Correlation in order to determine the relationship of it.

178675914977Source of Materials
00Source of Materials

27926271270010
1805305154099Peeling of Avocado and Star apple exocarpsPeeling of Avocado and Star apple exocarps
2817341223800
1865870154339Boiling of Avocado and Star apple exocarps0Boiling of Avocado and Star apple exocarps
281734127888
center-345972Blending of Avocado and Star apple exocarps mixture
Blending of Avocado and Star apple exocarps mixture

center2145950
center16819Pounding to form the paste-like mixture
0Pounding to form the paste-like mixture

center167330
center16081Testing of the Paste
Testing of the Paste

b. Risk and Safety
The risk of the topic is the allergy from the substance called latex. The person who will use the product must be not allergic to the substance in the organic paste.

c. Data analysis
Surfaces of Paper Drying Duration
(minutes) Bond Strength Level
(meter/sec)
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Bond Paper
Manila Paper Oslo Paper
Art Paper Glossy Paper

Bibliography
Wikipedia (2017). Paste. Retrieved from
http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paste
Packer, J. Adhesives. Retrieved from
http://www.nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/polymers/10H.pdf
Fulgenci,J. et al. (2012) Paste out of Banana (Musa acinibita) and Jackfruit (Artocarpos
heterophyllus). Retrieved from
https://www.academia.edu/10389587/Paste_out_ofBanana_Musa_acinibita_and_Jackfruit_Artocarpos_heterophyllusRenee, J. (2017). What Food Contain Latex. Retrieved from
https://www.livestrong.com/article/292993-what-foods-contain-latex
Wikipedia (2018). Latex. Retrieved from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latex
Wikipedia (2018). Chrysophyllum cainito. Retrieved from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysophyllum_cainito

Wikipedia (2018). Avocado. Retrieved from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avocado

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