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February 7, 2019 0 Comment

SUMMARY:
The Dainik Bhaskar Group one of the largest print media in India. The Group is having printing presses and Offices at various places across India. Dainik Bhaskar Jaora Printing plant is one the various Plants. Energy audit of lighting system, Air conditioning system, Computers and other Electrical load, transformers, reactive power management was carried out. After conduction of detailed Audit of various Utilities and analysis of performance of various Equipment’s, various Energy conservation opportunities are identified and Energy conservation measures are recommended for each area with economic analysis. The various finding of Energy audit with suggested Energy conservation measures and Pay back analysis for each type of load in summarised in following section. So, to maximise the energy conservation in plant.

1.1 LIGHTING SYSTEM: After detailed illumination audit, various Energy conservation opportunities were identified and following Energy conservations measures are recommended. Summary of energy saving in illumination is tabulated in following section.

91440124777500
Recommended value of Watts/Sq. meter/100 lux are tabulated in following table
15599426661600
Summary of total Energy saving in lighting
Sr. Energy conservation Energy Energy cost Investment Pay back %ROI
No. measures saving per Saving per Rs period Year Year in Rs Year In KWH 1 Replacement of1174.08 10822 6600 63.9%
36 W light fixture 0.69 Year or 7.3 month By 20 W LED light fixture 2 Replacement of 1108.8 6764 5000 35.2%
20 W Light 0.74 year or 8.8 Months fixture by 9W LED Slim tube 3 Replacement of 756 4612 4374 5.44%
65W CFL down 0.94 year or 11.3 lighters by 40W LED months Down lighter 4 Replacement of 150W 4233.60 25824.96 50400 1.951 48.76%
metal halide flood light Years or by 90 W LED Flood light 23.4 fixture Months 5 Replacement of 250W 569.4 3474 7800 55.4%
metal halide flood light 2.24 year or 26.9 month By 120 W LED Flood light 6 Energy saving 5040 30744 – – –
potential switching off lights in areas where sufficient day light is available for indoor illumination Total 13661.88 86998.96 74174.00 0.85 year or 10.23 months 17.3%
Power consumption reduction in lighting after Implementation of recommended Energy conservation measures
Sr. No. Recommended Energy conservation Measures Reduction in power
consumption in KW
1 Replacement of 1X 36 W light fixture by 1X 20 W LED 0.352
light fixture 2 Replacement of 1X 20 W Light fixture by 1X 9W 0.22
LED Slim tube 3 Replacement of 1X 65W CFL down lighters by 40W 0.15
LED Down lighter 4 Replacement of 150 W Metal halide lamp light fixture by 90 W LED Light fixture 0.840
5 Replacement of 250 W Metal halide lamp light fixture by 120 W LED Light fixture 0.13
6 Energy Saving potential by carrying out de-lamping of 0.325
lamps where illumination level is higher than recommended Valve 7 Energy Saving potential by carrying out switching off 2.1
lamps where illumination is sufficient at day time Total power consumption reduction in KW 4.117
Revised connected load after Proposed implementation of all recommendations =2.24KW
% Reduction in lighting load with Energy conservation =43.03 %
Recommended LED light fixture Makes:
SYSKA
PHIPLIPS
WIPRO
OSRAM
Recommendations:
It is recommended to replace existing lights by recommended LED lamps.

It is recommended not to use lights when there is sufficient day lights along window side areas

1.2 TRANSFORMER:
RMS Voltage variation was in the range of 408.11V to 447 .24 V. Higher RMS voltage results into increase in Energy consumption in addition to accelerated ageing leading to premature failure of Equipment’s. During Energy Audit off load tap changer of transformer was changed from tap number 3 to 1 and RMS voltage variation was brought down to 392.11V to 426 Volts .Reduction in RMS voltage will help to reduce energy consumption by 5% .

Energy saving by optimization of Voltage Profile:
Input Voltage Variation Percentage reduction in breakdown possible Approx. Power saving Possible
380-420 Volt No reduction of breakdown of electrical equipment No requirement of stabilizer
380-440 Volt up to 20 % reduction of breakdown of electrical equipment Up to 5 %
380-460 Volt up to 60 % reduction of breakdown of electrical equipment Up to 7 %
380-470 Volt up to 80 % reduction of breakdown of electrical equipment  
Energy Saving potential per year after optimization of RMS voltage profile by transferring of off load tap of transformer from 3 to 1:
Total last year Energy consumption in KWH = 138891.00
Energy saving potential per year after optimization of RMS voltage = 0.05 x 138891.00KWH = 6944.55 KWH
Energy cost saving per year by optimization of Voltage considering Energy cost of Rs6.10 /KWH = 6944.55 X Rs 6.10 = Rs 42361.75.00
Investment: Nil
1.3 REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT:
Adequate reactive power management:
Existing reactive power management scheme is adequate. Recommended to install 250KVAR, 7% Detuned RTPFC panel for reactive power management and mitigation of harmonic resonance.

Total benefits of adequate reactive power management by installation of 250KVAR, 7% Detuned RTPFC panel = 48917.62Rs
Investment: Cost of 250 KVAR, 7% Detuned RTPFC Panel = Rs 112500.00 Payback period = 0.581 Years or 6.978 Months
% ROI = 171.968
1.4 AIR CONDITIOING SYSTEM:
Existing Air conditioning system Description:
Detailed measurement and calculation are tabulated with specifications of all A.C. Performance analysis of each Split air conditioner was carried out and detailed measurements and analysis with recommendations are listed in performance evaluation of particular section.

5. Summary of Energy saving potential in HVAC system
S.No. Suggested Energy Energy Energy cost Investment Pay back %ROI conservation measure saving saving period potential in potential per KWH year in Rs 1 Increase in temperature 7740.8 47219 – – – set point of room air conditioners from existing 22-23 to 25 degree centigrade 2 Switching of room air 2756.7 16815.87 – – – conditioners 30 minutes before conclusion off office hours Total 10497.5 64034.87 NIL Sr. No Energy conservation Measures Energy saving per year Amount saved/year Rs.

KWH 1 Energy saving potential switching 5040 30744
off lights in areas where sufficient day light is available for indoor illumination 2 Maintenance of RMS voltage near 6944.55 42361.75
400V Increase in temperature set point 7740.8 47219
3 of room air conditioners from existing 22-23 to 25 degree centigrade Switching of room air 2756.7 16815.87
4 conditioners 30 minutes before conclusion off office hours Total 22482.05 137140.62
NO INVESTMENT SAVINGS:
Total Savings with and without investment:
Sr.no Energy conservation measures Energy saving per year KWH Amount saved/ year Rs.

1 Energy savings in lightings 13661.88 86998.96
2 Energy saving by optimization of voltage profile 6944.55 42361.75
3 Energy savings in Air conditioning system 10497.5 64034.87
Total 31103.93 193395.58
CHAPTER – 1
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
GENERAL
Dainik Bhaskar is one of the largest News Print Company in India having printing presses and offices located at various places in India, DB Plant Jaora is one of the Plant. With the increasing energy cost and the commitment towards sustainable development, the management of the organization is always proactive towards energy conservation. power quality audit at Jaora Plant to identify various opportunities for Energy saving in HVAC, Lighting etc. Detailed Energy audit was carried out in area with following objectives.

OBJECTIVE OF ENERGY AUDIT:
To undertake energy audit to identify the various energy conservation opportunities (ECO’s) such as Lighting system, HVAC transformer, reactive power management by conducting field measurement, detailed analysis and suggest energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption with detailed techno-economic analysis.
To establish benchmark values for energy consumption.
To identify the areas of energy saving with no investment and with investment.
To prioritize distinct areas identified for energy saving depending upon saving potential, skills and time frame for execution, investment cost, payback etc.
To study energy monitoring system required for effective monitoring of energy consumption and analysis of energy efficiency.
To identify energy consumption of various major equipment’s.
Attempt fine-tuning of certain parameters aimed at saving power.
SCOPE OF ENERGY AUDIT
To study the energy consumption analysis of the Plant such as lighting, motor, reactive power management, HVAC and other areas.
ELECTRICAL ENERGY
To study electrical energy metering, monitoring and control systems are existing in the unit and to recommend the suitable system for future monitoring.
To study the monthly power factor, maximum demand, working hours, load factors etc for reference period along with monthly electricity consumption and to establish scope for optimization of load factor through detailed load management study.
To recommend a specific rationalization/optimization programmed based on measurement of power factors at various PCC points, existing capacitor systems and its maintenance, automatic/manual control required etc.
To undertake the detail motor load assessment on all the motors above 5HP to study the loading patterns of the motors to identify the oversized and undersized motors.
To undertake Illumination audit of all the section including lux measurement with the help of lux meter to recommend the specific plan for energy conservation.
Comparison of actual level of illumination with recommended level of illumination for various activities.
Study of efficiency of existing lamps and ballast used.
Study of voltage profile of all feeders.
Identification of energy conservation opportunities of lighting systems.
Performance evaluation of Air conditioners.
Recommend immediate low cost / no cost energy conservation measures.
Recommend medium term energy conservation measures.
Recommend long-term energy conservation measures.
Evaluation, Implementation and monitoring: To identify, evaluate and prioritize energy saving
opportunities through above into short, mid and long-term time basis depending upon investments,
quantum of savings, skills and time required for implementation etc. To suggest a time bounded action plan for execution of accepted measures.

1.3 METHODOLOGY:
FOLLOWING METHODOLOGY WAS FOLLOWED DURING ENERGY AUDIT
Held preliminary discussion with Production and maintenance in charge and his team to understand electric supply distribution network feeding power to various areas and energy consumption pattern of various utilities, energy accounting system and various energy management systems employed for energy conservation.
Gathered all relevant data related to conduction of detailed energy audit pertaining to electrical system, connected load, monthly energy bills, single line diagram of distribution system, HVAC system, Water distribution system.

Detailed Measurement was conducted with the help of various instruments. The various equipment’s used during measurements are lux meter and clamp on meter.
On the basis of measurement result and data collected performance of room wise lighting system, motor driven system and other light are calculated.
Recommendations are given based on techno economic analysis to reduce energy consumption.
Cost benefits analysis on account of improved efficiency is done.

The various equipment’s used during measurements are listed in table 1.0
TABLE 1.1: INSTRUMENTION USED DURING ENERGY AUDIT
Sr. Instrument Specifications
No 1. Clamp on meter 0-1200KW
0-600V AC
0-800V DC
0-2000A, current AC/DC
2. Lux meter 0-10,000 lux level, non-contact type
3 Meggar for Earth tester 1.4 ENERGY SCENE
Primary energy sources used in the Printing machine, offices are for Air conditioning and lighting, Computers Major part of connected load is Printing Machine & Air conditioning.

1.5 ENERGY: SOURCES AND MONITORIZATION
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: The main source of power for the press is through 33KV HT feeder Supply.

1.6 ENERGY METERING, MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM-EXISTING STATUS
Electricity: The electrical energy consumption of Plant is measured on TOD tri-vector meter
CHAPTER 2
ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES IN MOTOR DRIVEN
SYSTEMS
ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES IN MOTOR DRIVEN SYSTEMS
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Motor driven system consists of Electrical power supply, the electric motor control and a mechanical transmission system. There are several ways to increase the system efficiency. The cost reducing way is to check each component of the system to reduce electrical losses. Poor power distribution within a system can lead to common cause of energy losses.

Electric Motors consume 70 % of total electricity used in the industrial sector. Majority of industrial loads use squirrel cage induction motor as a operating element, because of low capital, maintenance costs and rugged design. Electric motors are used to provide rotating power to equipment such as compressor, pumps, blowers etc that finds application in industry. It is important that the industrial user mention or define his need accurately to help in proper selection of motor for a particular application. When selecting a motor for any operation, the following points should be kept in mind.

Process requirements: Flow, automatic/non automatic control, variable speed etc.
Technical aspects: start up torque, duty load cycle and operating conditions.
Electrical system requirement
Availability of motor
Cost of motor
The general observation in the industry is that motors of higher rating than is required for given applications are used because of several reasons, which result into under loading of motors. Good knowledge of operational data and better understanding of plant power system can help in the over sizing of motor without loss of reliability. Rewinding of the motors results into poor energy efficiency, which leads to more energy consumption and energy costs. Therefore improvement of efficiency of motor must be part of any comprehensive energy, conservation effort. Load losses and hence efficiency of any motor varies in accordance with motor loads. For operational loads in the range of 60%-100% rated load, the decrease in motor efficiency is not very significant but the power factor drops eventually and led to reduce PF, and on further reducing the efficiency.

Motor operation is also affected considerably by service conditions like voltage, frequency, and voltage unbalance and % total voltage harmonic distortion.

2.2 RECOMMENDATIONS:
The power source is one of the major factors that affecting the operational process and maintenance of an electrical motor driven system. To get better efficiency and performance from motor it is necessary to operate all motors under mention points.

Within tolerance of ?10% of rated voltage.
Operation from a sinusoidal voltage supply.
Operation within a tolerance of ?5% frequency.
Operation within a voltage unbalance of 1% or less.
Operation of motors at other than desirable service conditions may lead result in consumption of more energy. The Nameplate values for current, power factor, efficiency and torque are based on operation at rated voltage and frequency. Using motor at a dissimilar voltage will transform its performance.

2.3 EFFECT OF VOLTAGE VARIATIONS
The effect of voltage variations on motor operation are
EFFECT OF REDUCED VOLTAGE
Increase in operating temperature
Reduction in starting torque
Reduction in running torque
EFFECT OF INCREASED VOLTAGE
Decrease in power factor
Increase in starting and running torque
Increase in starting current
2.4 EFFECT OF UNBALANCED VOLTAGE
The effect of voltage unbalance between phase voltages is more serious. The current unbalance will be in the order of six times the voltage unbalance. The effects on the motors are reduced efficiency and increased operating temperature. For voltage unbalance above 1% it is necessary to de-rate motor as a square of unbalance and motor operation above 5% unbalance is not recommended. The locked motor torque and breakdown torque are decreased when voltage is unbalanced. If voltage unbalance is extremely severed the torque might not be adequate for the application.

FREQUENCY VARIATIONS: Motor currents, torque, efficiency, power factor and speed are all affected by frequency.

EFFECT OF HARMONIC VOLTAGE DISTORTION
The efficiency of electric motors designed for sinusoidal conditions when operated on distorted voltage results into decrease in efficiency and increase in temperature rise. Induction motor operation above 5% total voltage harmonic distortion is not recommended as per IEEE STD 519-1992. Even a smallest improvement in the energy efficiency of the motor driven systems can produce substantial amount energy savings.

IMPORTANT NOTE: When employing electric motors for air moving equipment, it is important to remember that performance of fans and blowers is governed by certain rules. For centrifugal loads even a minor change in the motor speed translates into significant saving in energy.

2.6 ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES IN ELECTRIC MOTORS

Stopping idle or redundant running of motors
Matching motor with driven load
Improving drive transmission efficiency
Use of energy efficient motors
Improvement in motor systems
2.7 ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES BY MOTOR DRIVE MAINTENANCE AND ALIGNMENT
Operation of a motor is affected by the lack proper maintenance; simple and regular maintenance and inspection will provide longer motor life and can also save on operational costs.

Temperature: The most important factor affecting life of a motor is temperature of the insulation. Increasing the insulation temp. by 10 Deg. C will reduce the life of motor by half. Ensure motors are well ventilated.
Dirt: If screens, filters or air vents become clogged motors may overheat and eventually fail.
Moisture: Intermittent use or standby motors are prone to the problems with moisture in the windings. The windings insulation resistance is a good indicator of the presence of moisture. Corrective action should be taken if the insulation resistance is less than 1 M ohm per KV.
Greasing: Over greasing of bearings can lead to friction-causing bearings to overheat and motor loss increase and is the most common cause of bearing failure.
Vibration: It is noticeable increase in motor drive vibration is an indication of trouble-checks should be made of mounting bolts, shaft alignment, and bearings. Vibration is the difficult issue to resolve and lead to motor losses.
2.8: CONCLUSION OF MOTOR LOADING AND INPUT POWER QUALITY ANALYSIS
1 Average value of % Voltage unbalance factor is less than 1% recommended by NEMA MG standard. There is no need to carry out De-rating of motors.

2 Average Value of % Total voltage harmonics at motor terminal is below 5% limit recommended by IEEE 519-1992 Standard.

3 RMS Voltage variation was higher, during Energy Audit transformer off load tap changer was shifted to 1 and RMS voltage is adjusted. Optimization of RMS voltage will help to reduce energy consumption in addition to reduction in ageing of equipment’s.

CHAPTER – 3
ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES IN LIGHTING AREA
ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES IN LIGHTING AREA
Press general lighting is provided by use of 36W,20 W,65W CFL and 150W Down lighter, 250W Metal halide light fixtures are used.36 W Tube light fixtures are used in cabins and random areas, CFL down lighters are provided in passages, cabin, Light are controlled by switched and there is no timer based as well as occupancy sensor-based control. Energy audit of lighting was carried out by measurement of illumination level with lux meter and Lighting load assessment was carried out to identify the areas for Energy saving in lighting area.

Table 3.1: Area wise illumination level and Light Fixture details:
LOCATION ILLUMINATION LIGHT HOURS REMARK
FIXTURE Parking side Main entry gate 142,180 1 X 36 W Tube light ; 1 X 250 W MH light 12 –
GAURAD ROOM 162,154 1 X 36 W Tube light 12 –
DG SET AREA 437, 344,322 3 X 36 W Tube light 12 –
TR Yard 122 12 –
LT Panel room 122,103,111,109 4 X 36W =04 12 –
Machine Area ; Reel godwn 388,210,287,409 14 X 150W downlighter ; 5 x 65 12 –
W CFL 3 X 36W Tube light 12 store 108,116,90 Mechanical room 106,216 2 X 36 W Tube light 12 Changing room 211 1 X 36 W Tube light 12 MIS 286 1 X 36 W Tube light 12 Canteen 222 1 X 36 W Tube light 12 Conference room 184, 201 3 X 36 W Tube light 12 Production Manager room 314 1 X 40 Ceiling LED 12 Pre-Processor 167, 193 2 X 36 W Tube light 12 CTP Room 88,105,113 6 X 18 W Tube light 12 SMD Dispatch Area 214, 312 1 X 65 W CFL 12 Observations and recommendations of illumination Audit:
Areas where sufficient day light is available for indoor illumination. At all such places it is recommended to switch off lights in those areas and also during day period when sufficient day light is available during day period.
At many places illumination level is higher than recommended values of 200 lux, it is recommended to carry out de-lamping of one lamp per light fixtures.
Remark: It is recommended not to replace light fixtures in areas with less number of working hours and not in use by LED light fixtures.

3.1 AREA WISE LIGHT FIXTURE DETAILS AND MEASURED ILLUMINATION LEVEL
Table 3.2: Recommended illumination levels as per National Building Code (NBC)
Activity Recommended illumination level
General lighting: Illuminated tables 200-300-500
General office 300-500-750
Pump room 200-300-500
Toilet 50-100-150
Library 200-300-500
Reading rooms 200-300-500
Entrance lobbies 150-200-300
Entrance desk 300-500-750
Gate houses 150-200-300
Lift 50-100-150
Corridors, passages, staircases 50-100-150
Changing /locker rooms 50-100-150
Canteen 150-200-300
Food preparation 300-500-750
Food store 100-150-200
Electrical power supply and distribution room 100-150-200
Mechanical plant room 100-150-200
Covered car parks floor 5-20
3.2: ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES IN LIGHTING AREA where 1XTL36W /36 W/28W /28W /36W Mirror optics/surface mounted Light Fixtures are used for Illumination:
Table 3.3: Total Number of 36W/ 28 W/ 28 W light Fixtures.

Area 20 W 250 W 1X 65W 150W
36 w light HPM V Street CFL MH
With Fixtures light Down Flood
Cu With Cu Choke lighter Light
choke Number 1L 2L of lamps in use 22 20 00 01 6 14
ENERGY CONSERVATION IN LIGHTING
Table 3.4: Energy conservation by replacement of 36-Watt Tube light with copper ballast
with 20W Tube Light LED type lamp in same Light Fixture
Sr. No Description 1 Total power consumption of 22 Nos, 36 W Tube light with copper ballast. (22X36)/1000=0.792KW
2 Total power consumption by replacement of 22 number 36 W FTL by 20 W Tube Light LED in same Fixture (22X20)/1000= 0.44KW
3 Power consumption reduction by replacement of 0.352KW
36 W fixture with copper ballast by 20 W TL LED lamp in same Fixture 4 Energy saving per year considering 14 hours 0.352X14x360 =1774.08 KWH
operation per day and 360 days in year 5 Total energy cost saving/year considering energy Rs.6.10×1774.08 = Rs 10822.00
cost Rs 6.10/ KWH excluding demand charges and Electricity Duty 6 Total cost of 20 W LED TL lamps Rs 300 x 22 = Rs 6600.00
7 Payback period 0.609 Years or 7.3 months
8 % Return on investment 63.9%
Table 3.5: Energy conservation by replacement of 20 W Tube light fixture with copper
choke by 9W LED slim light
Sr. No Description 1 Total power consumption of 20 number of 20W (20×20)/1000= 0.4KW
Light fixture with copper choke 2 Total power consumption of 20 Number of 9W (20 X9) /1000= 0.18KW
LED slim tube light 3 Power consumption reduction by replacement of 0.22 KW
20W Light fixture with copper choke by 9 W LED Slim tube light 4 Energy saving per year considering 14 hours 0.22 X14 X360= 1108.8 KWH
operation per day and 360 days in year 5 Total energy cost saving/year considering energy Rs6.10 X 1108.8 = Rs6764.00
cost Rs 6.10 / KWH excluding demand charges and Electricity Duty 6 Total cost of 20 number of 9 W LED slim tube Rs 250 x 20 = Rs5000.00
light 7 Payback period 0.74 Years or 8.8 months
8 % Return on investment 35.2 %
Table 3.6: Energy conservation by replacement of 65 W CFL down lighters by 40 W
LED Down lighter
Sr. No Description 1 Total power consumption of 6 number of 65 W (6X65)/1000 =0.39 KW
CFL down lighter 2 Total power consumption of 6 Number of 40 W (6X40)/1000 = 0.24 KW
LED Down lighter 3 Power consumption reduction by replacement of 0.15 KW
65W CFL down lighter by 40W LED Down lighter 4 Energy saving per year considering 14 hours 0.15 X14X360= 756 KWH
operation per day and 360 days in year 5 Total energy cost saving/year considering energy Rs6.10 x 756 = Rs4612.00
cost Rs 6.10 / KWH excluding demand charges and
Electricity Duty 6 Total cost of 6 number of 40 W LED down Rs 729 x 6 = Rs4374.00
lighter 7 Payback period 0.94 years or 11.3 months
8 % Return on investment 5.44%
Table 3.7: Energy conservation by replacement of 150 W Metal Halide down lighters by 90 W LED Down lighter
Sr. No Description 1 Total power consumption of 14 number of 150 W (14X150) /1000 = 2.1KW
Metal halide down lighter 2 Total power consumption of 14 Number of 90W (14X90)/1000 = 1.26KW
LED Down lighter 3 Power consumption reduction by replacement of 0.840 KW
150 W Metal halide down lighter by 90W LED Down lighter 4 Energy saving per year considering 14 hours 0.840 X14X360= 4233.60KWH
operation per day and 360 days in year 5 Total energy cost saving/year considering energy Rs6.10 x4233.60= Rs 25824.96
cost Rs 6.10/KWH excluding demand charges and
Electricity Duty 6 Total cost of 14 number of 90 W LED down Rs 3600 x 14 = Rs50400.00
lighter 7 Payback period 1.951 years or 23.4 months
8 % Return on investment 48.76%
Table 3.8: Energy consumption by replacement of 250 metal halide flood light by 120 W LED Flood Light
Sr. No Description 1 Total power consumption of 1 number of 250W (250X01)/1000 = 0.25 KW
Street Light Fixture. 2 Total power consumption of 1 Number of 120 (120X01)/1000 = 0.12 KW
W LED street light Fixture 3 Power consumption reduction by replacement of 0.13 KW
250W Metal halide by 120 W LED Flood light fixture 4 Energy saving per year considering 12 hours 0.13 X12X365 = 569.4 KWH
operation per day and 365 days in year 5 Total energy cost saving/year considering energy Rs 6.10 x 569.4= Rs 3474.00
cost Rs 6.10 / KWH excluding demand charges and Electricity Duty 6 Total cost of 120 W LED flood light Rs 7800 x01 = Rs 7800.00
7 Payback period 2.24 years or 26.94 months
8 % Return on investment 55.4%
Table 3.9: Energy saving potential by switching OFF lights in areas where sufficient day light is available
Sr. No Description 1 Reduction in power consumption by switching 2.1 KW
off lights during day period when sufficient day light is available = 2 Energy saving potential per year considering 2.1x8x300 = 5040KW H
300 days during which natural day light is available 3 Energy cost saving potential by switching off 5040xRs6.10 = Rs 30744
lights in mentioned areas during day period when sufficient day light is available considering Energy cost of Rs 6.10 Investment NIL
3.3 Summary of total Energy saving in lighting:6148705-18923000
Table 3.10: Summary of total Energy saving in lighting:
Sr. Energy conservation Energy Energy cost Investment Pay back %ROI
No. measures saving per Saving per Rs period Year Year in Rs Year In KWH 1 Replacement of 1174.08 10822 6600.00 0.609 years 63.9%
36 W light fixture or 7.3 months by 20 W LED light fixture 2 Replacement of 1108.8 6764 5000.00 0.74 years 35.2%
20 W Light or 8.8 fixture by 9W months LED Slim tube 3 Replacement of 756 4612 4374.00 0.94 5.44%
65W CFL down years or lighters by 40W LED 11.3 Down lighter months 4 Replacement of 250W 569.4 3474 7800.00 2.24 years 55.4%
metal halide flood light or 26.94 by 120 W LED Flood light fixture months 5 Replacement of 150W 4233.60 25824.96 50400.00 1.951 48.76%
metal halide flood light Years or by 90 W Flood light 23.4 fixture Months 6 Energy saving 5040 30744 – – –
potential switching off lights in areas where sufficient day light is available for indoor illumination Total Rs 12881.88 82240.96 74174.00 0.85 years 17.3%
or 10.23 months Table 3.11: Power consumption reduction in lighting after Implementation of recommended Energy conservation measures:
Sr. No. Recommended Energy conservation Measures Reduction in power
consumption in KW
1 Replacement of 1X 36 W light fixture by 1X 20 W LED 0.352
light fixture 2 Replacement of 1X 20 W Light fixture by 1X 9W 0.22
LED Slim tube 3 Replacement of 1X 65W CFL down lighters by 40W 0.15
LED Down lighter 4 Replacement of 150 W Metal halide lamp light fixture by 90 W LED Light fixture 0.840
5 Replacement of 250 W Metal halide lamp light fixture by 120 W LED Light fixture 0.13
6 Energy Saving potential by carrying out de-lamping of 0.325
lamps where illumination level is higher than recommended Valve 7 Energy Saving potential by carrying out switching off 1.080
lamps where illumination is sufficient at day time Total power consumption reduction in KW 3.097
Revised connected load after implementation of all recommendations = 2.24 KW % Reduction in lighting load with Energy conservation =43.03 %
Recommended LED light fixture Makes:
SYSKA
PHIPLIPS
WIPRO
OSRAM

CHAPTER -4
POWER QUALITY AUDIT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
POWER QUALITY AUDIT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1 NEED OF POWER QUALITY AUDIT
There are several important reasons to conduct power quality audit. The various reasons are:
To avoid financial loss due to process disruption: – The various cost of disruption is
Lost work: The product or service is not generated for a period of time until the recovery is complete. The various cost related to lost work are idled labour, lost production hence lost profits, overtime labour and premium charges, overtime operating cost, late delivery fees.

Cost of repair of the damaged equipment: – The various costs involved in repairing of damaged equipment due to power quality problem are repair, cost of labour, cost of replaced spare parts, cost of replacement part availability.

Cost of recovery: – Cost involved in recovery of secondary equipment failures, recovery of labour inefficiency.

Cost of scrap and product quality: – The various cost involved are replacement value of scrap (BOM value + labour value, product lost profit margin and rework costs.

E) Miscellaneous cost: – The various miscellaneous costs are customer’s dissatisfaction, lost business, avoided customers due to longer lead time, fines and penalties etc.

Considering the huge financial losses related to a power quality event causing process disruption to industry, it is necessary to monitor power quality to provide cost effective solution to avoid financial losses. The various effects of power quality event on equipment and process operation include mis-operation, damage, process disruption, and other anomalies.

4.2 IMPACT OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS ON THE OPERATIONS OF VARIOUS EQUIPMENTS
The growing percentage of sensitive equipment’s and process downtime due to power quality problems has pointed out an incompatibility between the tolerances of electronics appliances to power disturbances and the expected electric environment. Power quality audit helps to study various power quality problems present in electric supply distribution system and to take appropriate remedial actions. With a better understanding of the electrical environment, end users can request improvements in the tolerance of electrical appliances to power quality disturbances to ensure electrical power system compatibility. In order to mitigate these power quality anomalies a statistical knowledge base of frequency, voltage profiles as a function of time of the day is required. The harmonics present in the electrical distribution are undesirable for the operation of various equipment’s. They cause frequent failure of equipment’s due to excessive heating, over loading of transformers and cables, malfunctioning of electronic equipment’s and increase in line loss etc.

Some symptoms caused by power quality include:
Malfunction of equipment.
Frequent system reboots becoming necessary.
High failure rate of electronic systems.
Overheating of transformers, cables, motors and capacitor banks.
Inaccuracy of testing and measuring equipment.
Light dimming or blinking.
The level of power quality required is that level which will result in proper operation of equipment at a particular facility. It is the susceptibility of end use equipment that defines the necessary level of power quality.

Parameter CHK1 CHK2 CHK3 Max Avg. Min Max Avg. Min Max Avg. Min
RMS 445.29 429.11 414.24 438.71 424.11 409.29 438.3 422.84 408.11
VOLTAGE (V) RMS 169.85 66.98 21.73 157.71 73.88 31.91 193.53 103.48 38.24
CURRENT (A) POWER 0.9998 0.98 — — — — — —
FACTOR 0.94 4.3 RESULTS OF POWER QUALTIY ANALYSIS
Power quality analysis was conducted at various feeders. The result of power quality analysis conducted for various positions of tap of the distribution transformer is presented below.

Power quality analysis at Main LT incomer.
Table 4.0: Power quality analysis at Main LT incomer
Table: 4.1: Power quality analysis at main LT incomer after change of transformer tap from tap number 3 to 1 and reshuffling of good capacitors in APFC
Parameter CHK1 CHK2 CHK3 Max Avg. Min Max Avg. Min Max Avg. Min
RMS 426 412.5 397.21 421.61 408.28 393.99 420.11 406.52 392.11
VOLTAGE (V) RMS 133.33 53.02 19.14 112.99 47.65 18.7 185.26 87.54 37.94
CURRENT (A) POWER 0.9999 0.9998 0.9997 — — — — — —
FACTOR 4.4: Conclusion of Power quality analysis at Main LT incomer
RMS Voltage variation during power quality monitoring period was between 408.11 V to 447.24V .Higher RMS voltage results into increase in power consumption of motors , air conditioners and lamps in addition to decrease in life of Equipment .During Energy audit off load tap changer tap was changed from present number 3 to number 1 and after revision of tap the RMS voltage variation was monitored and was varying between 392.11V to 426V.Otimisation of RMS voltage will help to reduce Energy consumption and in addition to accelerated the ageing of equipment’s .
Average value of % Total voltage harmonic distortion is less than 5% limit recommended by IEEE 519-1192 standard for general distribution system below 69KV.
Average value of % Individual voltage harmonic distortion of all order is less than 3% limit recommended by IEEE 519-1992 standard for general distribution system.
Average % Voltage unbalance factor is less than 1% limit.
Average % Current unbalance factor is higher.
Reactive power compensation is required for smooth and reduces harmonics.

Recommended to replace all capacitors of APFC by new capacitors
4.5: Energy Saving potential per year after optimization of RMS voltage profile by transferring of off load tap of transformer from 3 to 1:
Total last year Energy consumption in KWH = 138891.00
Energy saving potential per year after optimization of RMS voltage = 0.05 x 138891.00KWH = 6944.55 KWH
Energy cost saving per year by optimization of Voltage considering Energy cost of Rs6.10 /KWH = 6944.55 X Rs 6.10 = Rs 42361.75.00
Investment: Nil
4.6: TR Specifications:
Type: ONAN KVA:500
Vhv=33KV, Ihv= 8.75 A
Vlv=433 V, Ilv=666.6 A Phases =3
Connection:
HV Winding: Delta
LV Winding: Star Vector Group: Dyn11 Insulation Class: F Winding: Copper Cooling: ONAN Frequency :50Hz
Guaranteed temperature rises in oil =50 Degree Centigrade.

HV Voltage (KV) Tap Number LT Voltage (V)
34650 1 33825 2 33000 3 433V
32175 4 31350 5 Present tap connected: Tap Number 3
RMS Voltage was higher, during Energy audit tap was changed from 3 to tap number 1 to maintain RMS Voltage variation around 400 Volts.

4.7 Observations and recommendation related with transformer Yard:
LT Box open, no glands are provided. Recommended to provide LT cable box with glands for LT cables.
Provide support to LT cables terminated to LT side of transformer to reduce the tension on LT Lugs at point of termination.
Recommended to carry out maintenance of switch yard and provide layer of crushed rock from safety point of view as well as to avoid growth of weeds.
HT structure needs to be painted.
TR HV cable box cover is open. Recommended to install HV cable cover.
Recommended to provide lock to GOD switch.
? 4.8 OBSERVATIONS RELATED WITH LT ROOM:
PCC Panel stand is not covered. Recommended to provide cover.
Rubber mat provided in front of LT panel.
No fire extinguishers are provided in Electrical room. Provide fire extinguishers

CHAPTER -5
REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT
REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT
An improvement of power factor can provide both economic and system advantages. The various operational benefits are improved system efficiency, release of system capacity, reduction of power losses and voltage improvement. The energy saving are dependent on
The percentage reduction in ampere due to additional KVAR
Motor design, conductor size and conductor length.
Capacitor watt loss.
5.1 REDUCED POWER LOSSES WHEN CAPACITORS ARE LOCATED AT THE LOAD: Since power losses are proportional to the current squared and the current is proportional to the power factor, an improvement in power factor will cause a reduction in system losses and reduced power bills.

? Original power factor 2 ?% Loss reduction=100 ???1 ? ? 2 ? Desired power factor ? ? ? 5.2: Adequate reactive power management:
Existing reactive power management scheme is adequate. Recommended to install 250KVAR, 7% Detuned RTPFC panel for reactive power management and mitigation of harmonic resonance.

Total benefits adequate reactive power management by installation of 250KVAR, 7% Detuned RTPFC panel = Rs 48917.00.

Investment: Cost of 250KVAR, 7% Detuned RTPFC Panel = Rs 1,65,591.00
Payback period = 3.38 Years or 40.62 Months %ROI = 70.45%
5.3: Existing reactive power management Scheme:
5.1 Presently reactive power management is carried out by APFC without de-tuned reactor. Details of APFC Panels:
Stage Number Cap. KVAR Actual current Measured (Amp.) Remark
rating IR IY IB 1 1KVAR – 1.03 1.02 R phase
damaged
2 3KVAR 3.5 4.1 3.2 OK
3 5KVAR 5.46 4.44 4.89 OK
4 10KVAR 12.9 13.1 12.9 OK
5 20KVAR 26.4 25.2 10.79 Weak
capacitors
6 40KVAR 106924216514950.7 59.5 52.7 OK
7 40KVAR 51.6 49.3 57.3 OK
8 40KVAR 51.7 51.8 58.4 OK
9 40KVAR 50.9 51.2 54.3 OK
10 40KVAR 52 51.7 56.1 OK
11(Run) 40 KVAR 50.2 52.9 52.8 OK
5.4 Installed APFC Relay: Neptune Phase trac RM-12
Programming parameter TON =5 Seconds
PF set Unity P5-5 C/K=0.10
CT Ratio: 400/5A
Over voltage protection :455 V
Fixed capacitor connected: 3KVAR in LT panel in plant. No fixed capacitor connected before CT of APFC
Capacitor Specifications:
Make: Neptune
Vn=440V
Rating: 10KVAR,
In =13.1A
Connection: Delta
Two number of capacitors connected in parallel to obtain 40KVAR step
20KVAR, Make: EPCOS
V =440V, KVAR =20, IR =26.24A
Stage 12: Neptune super heavy duty
KVAR = 25KVAR, Vn =440V, F =50Hz, In =33A
5.5 Conclusion:
Considering table 5.2 and current harmonic resonance, it is recommended to install 250 KVAR at 415 Volts, 7% Detuned RTPFC panel with following specifications to provide adequate reactive power management.

250 KVAR, 7% DETUNED RTPFC PANEL SPECIFICATIONS;
Specifications of 250 KVAR at 415V, 3 Phase, 50 Hz, 7% Detuned harmonic filter reactor, Thyristor Switched RTPFC Panel with following Detailed Specifications:
PANEL SHALL HAVE FOLLOWING MINIMUM FEATURES:
Capacitor switching shall shall be smooth and surge less.
No electromagnetic contactors / relays/ moving parts shall be used in the switching circuit or in parallel to the switching device.
Forced cooling system to thyristors shall be provided.
Diagnostic capabilities shall be provided to analyse and indicate the type of fault.
Power factor controlling shall be on cycle to cycle basis.
The controller shall be capable to work at phase to phase voltage between 200 to 440 volts.
Controller shall be 3 phase current ; voltage sensing ; operating type.
Digital controller shall be provided indication of line voltage, and current, power factor, active power, reactive power, apparent power, injected capacitive KVAR, uncompensated capacitive KVAR, CT ratio selected, switching time.
LED indication for capacitor bank step switch ON, power factor Lag / lead shall be provided.
LT Panel should be type tested for Short Circuit.

MCB/ HRC Fuse protection shall be suitable for Thyristor Switch.

MICRO PROCESSOR BASED PROTECTIONS TO BE PROVIDED TO THYRISTORISED SWITCHING SYSTEM:
Following protections shall be provided for each Capacitor Feeder.

1) Over voltage protection.
2) Over current protection.

Over temperature protection: Internal and External with a separate PT100 input Facility for Thyristor ; Reactor of each capacitor feeder.
Voltage imbalance protections.
Facility of manually operating capacitor bank on first in first out basis.
6) Second Target Power Factor trigger for DG operation to Realize Change Over.

Month Actual MD charges Billed P.FAdditional Total KWH Monthly Energy bill in
recorded Rs Power incentive at PF Rs
MD in Factor billed P. F incentive KW (Rs) At near unity PF Dec 16 155.00 72850 0.95 760 3800.85 12047.00 138440.00
Jan 17 169.00 78960 Exceed MD charges=RS 4590 0.936 0 3877.77 12714.00 150590.00
Feb 17 154.00 72380 0.954 662 3312.75 10500.00 113340.00
March 17 154.00 72380 0.962 1543 3859.6 12331.00 141638.00
April 17 155 77210 0.967 1691 4227.1 12927.00 150532.00
May 17 151 77010 0.971 2624 4373.3 13133.00 151850.00
June 17 160.00 81600 0.954 875 4374.5 13236.00 122758.00
July 17 151.00 77010 0.958 831 4159.35 12585.00 112826.00
August 17 152.00 77520 0.964 1730 4324.25 13084.00 115964.00
Sept 17 151.00 77010 0.966 1922 4803.35 14622.00 160890.00
Oct 17 145.00 73950 0.965 1448 3620.05 11020.00 118413.00
Nov 17 149.00 75990 0.957 837 4184.75 12739.00 149232.00
Total 14923 48917.62 1626473.00
TABLE 5.2: BENEFITS RELATED TO ADEQUATE REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT TO MAINTAIN POWER FACTOR TO UNITY
Sanctioned contract demand –160 KVA

General Technical Specifications For 250 KVAR at 415V, 50Hz, 7 % Detuned APFC Panel
Sr.No. Parameters/Details Specifications
1 Rated Voltage 415V +/-10%
2 Rated Frequency 50 Hz, +/-1.5Hz
3 Rated Output at 415 Volts 250 KVAR+/-5% at rated frequency and Voltage
4 Type Relay Switched Capacitor
5 Configuration Delta Connected
6 Number of stages 12
7 Number of Steps 12, Unequal
9 Protection Over Current /short Circuit
10 Control Auto/manual
11 Ambient Conditions Indoor 10 Deg.C to 40 Deg.C
12 Primary Protection 630 A, SFU Switch have HRC Fuse support.

13 Main Bus Bars Aluminium with current density less than
0.7Amp/Sq.mm
14 Parameter Indication Voltage, current, power (Real, Reactive), Power
Factor
16 Control Sequence Programmable by User with FIFO Facility
17 Panel construction Free Standing
18 Cable Entry Bottom through cable gland
19 Measuring current input Three CT with secondary current 5A
20 High Speed Fuses Shall be provided
21 Series Reactors: Detuned Required with low loss
Harmonic Filter 7% reactor aluminium wound with high linearity at 415 Volt. General Technical Specifications For 250KVAR at 415V, 50Hz, 7 % Detuned APFC Panel
Sr.No. Parameters/Details Specifications
23 Capacitor Type Heavy Duty type
24 Exhaust fan 8 Inch, 3 numbers
25 Panel CRCA powder coated
26 Application Indoor
27 Bus Bar Support SMC/DMC
28 Indicating lamps R, Y, B
29 Analog ammeter with ASS 0-800 A
30 Analog Voltmeter 0-500V
31 MCB/MCCB rating in each Shall be provided
Step Special Features Required 1 Fan stoppage alarm with indication by hooter
2 Smoke detection Feature with interlock with main incomer: In case of smoke incomer
should trip 3 Phase failure relay shall be provided.

4 Thermostat to Sense Overall temperature in APFC panel and Indication of Over
temperature by Hooter. Capacitor Makes: EPCOS/ABB/SCHINEIDER /NEPTUNE.

CHAPTER 6
ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES
AIR CONDITIONING
6.1 FACTORS GOVERNING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
In any commercial and industrial buildings power consumption of air conditioning system is major component. Proper design of building, use of energy efficient air-conditioning systems and regular maintenance leads to sort of saving in energy cost.

The various factors governing energy consumption of air-conditioning systems are;
Building design: Design of building plays a imp. role in the air-conditioning system. use of glass especially on the western side can play higher air-conditioning heat loads. Use of materials such as concrete, double wall glazing, hollow concrete blocks or foam insulated roof will help to increase the insulation of building and conserve energy.
Energy efficient air-conditioning equipment’s: It is suggested to use the air-conditioning equipment’s with the best energy efficiency ratio (EER). compressors are of higher EER which leads to conserve in energy for higher tonnages Screw and centrifugal equipment are most preferred because of low operating costs. Though the initial cost of energy efficient air conditioning unit is high but the energy consumption is less. On considering the life cycle cost, it is always suggested to use energy efficient air conditioning equipment’s.
Regular Maintenance: Scheduled/Periodical maintenance lead to ensure efficient operation of air-conditioner. During scheduled maintenance it is necessary to carry cleaning of filters, descaling of heat exchangers, lubricating friction point, such as fans, motors and shafts.
Selection of indoor temperature at the high point acceptable to the largest area of occupants, and shutting off the system when not in use will lead to energy saving.

The performance of installed system depends on the performance of equipment used. The parameters needed to be looked into are:
Inside and outside layout conditions.
Measured the flows and capacities of all equipment used in the system.
Compare of the measured and design capacities.
Comparison of energy consumption with design.
Factors in evaluating and better utilization of the HVAC system are as follows
Are there is any obstructions in the ventilation system?
Filters, radiator or coils need clean?
Are there is any ducts or passages and screens clogged?
Is there is any wrong amount of air being supplied at many times?
There is any dampers stuck?
Is the exhaust or intake volume is too high or too low?
There are all dampers function in the most efficiently manners?
Installed system exhaust only the area needing to ventilation?
Installed system intake only the amount required?
Can air be recycled rather than exhausted?
Can there the system be turned OFF at night?
There is temp. is right for the area of use?
Can temperature setting be used effectively?
Can heat be redirected? Is the proper system is being used?
K Is there is too much or too small ventilation Present.

Can there is natural environment be used more effectively?
Doors, windows or other openings wipe out valuable heat?
EXISTING AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Presently the split type Air conditioner is used in plant which was installed in cabins for cooling purpose, in many areas the cooling required more than the normal temp. due to some technical issues just like in CTP room the plate required temp. in between 20-23 deg C. and in electrical room AC is installed more than the desired at present 2 Nos. of AC is installed in Electrical room due to cooling of machine due to machines generated heat and lead to fault.

In some areas the filters of room air conditioners found clogged during energy audit. Clogging of filters leads to reduction in cooling effect and running of AC compressor for more hours also tend to increase in Energy consumption. Suggested to carry out regular cleaning of filters on periodic basis.

Presence of dirt and dust in rooms, AC condenser surfaces leading to reduction in heat transfer and increase in Energy consumption of room air conditioners. Suggested to carry out cleaning of condenser regularly.

6.3: Energy Consumption of AC’s:
Total Energy consumption of AC’s Installed:
(1740+2060+2050+1555+2050+2060+1740+2060) =15315W
Consumption in considering 12 hours operation per day:
(15315X12)/1000=183.78 Kwh
Total power consumption per year considering Energy cost of Rs 6.10 per KWH
=183.78X6.10X360=Rs403580.88.

6.4: Energy saving potential by increase in temperature set point of room Air conditioners from 23 to 25 Degree Centigrade:
Energy cost saving per year by increase in temperature set point of room air conditioners to 25-degree centigrade considering outside temp of room is 40 Deg.C.

(New temp.-Old temp.)
Percentage saving= ——————————– X100
(Outside temp.-old temp.)

Percentage saving= (25-23)/ (40-23) x100=11.7%
So, Energy consumption saving=7740.8
Energy cost saving Per year of Rs 6.10 per KWH = Rs 6.10 x7740.8 = Rs 47219.

Investment: Nil
6.5: Energy saving potential by switching OFF cabin room air conditioners 30 minutes before conclusion of office Hours.

Generally, room air conditioners are switched off at the time of conclusion off office hours, recommended to switch off room air conditioners in cabins 30 minutes before conclusion off office.

Total actual power consumption of room Air conditioners provided in cabin areas = 15.31 KW
Energy saving potential by switching off room air conditioners 30 minutes before conclusion off office hours per year = 15.31 x360x0.5 = 2756.7 KWH
Energy cost saving per year considering energy cost of Rs per KWH = Rs 6.10 x 2756.7 = Rs 16815.87
Investment: Nil
6.6: Performance assessment of room Air conditioners:
Table 6.1: Performance assessment of room Air conditioners
SR CAPACITY QTY TEMPERATURE (DEG C) CURRENT NO AREA MAKE TYPE TR NOS AMB GRILL ROOM A REMARK 1 Electrical room LG SAC 2 1 8,9 23 7.24/7.74 FILTER CHOCK 2 Electrical room
SAMSUNG SAC 1.5 1 10 24 7.9 OK 3 Conference room VOLTAS SAC 1.5 1 10 24 8 OK 4 Conference room VOLTAS SAC 1.5 1 34 9 23 6.8 OK 5 Manager room VOLTAS SAC 1.5 1 10 23 6.5 OK 6 CTP Room SAMSUNG SAC 1.5 1 9 22 8.1 OK 7 CTP Room SAMSUNG SAC 2 1 22 8.9 OK 8 CTP Room LG SAC 2 1 10 22 9.1 OK 6.7: Observations and recommendations related with room Air conditioners:
S.No. Recommended Energy conservation measures (ECM)
1 Increase in temperature set point of Air conditioners in cabin areas is from 17 to 18 degrees centigrade to 24-26 Degree centigrade.

2 Turn off ACs 30 minutes before conclusion off office hours.

4 Cleaning of filters of split air conditioners periodically.

5 Providing of proper insulation to copper tubing of Air conditioners.

6 Cleaning of condenser of air conditioners timely.

7 During winter when Ambient temperature is below 24 degrees centigrade, it is suggested to run only blowers of AC unit.

8 In Elec. room two number of split air conditioners are installed and both were running. Set point of split AC was 18 degrees centigrade
Suggested to increase temperature set point to 25 degrees centigrade.

9 Ceiling is leakage in electrical panel room which causes conditioned air gets leakage in ceiling area. Recommended to
close ceiling opening by installation of false ceiling tiles.

10 Close the opening and leakage of window in electrical and conference room.

6.7 Importance of filter cleaning on performance of Air conditioners:
The main purpose of filters is to protect the indoor coil from dirt and dust which reduce the overall performance of the air conditioner. It is very important to regularly check and clean out filter. Air conditioning maintenance is just one simple weekly operation. Because the air filter in any air conditioner stick out dust and pollen particles, it should be removed regularly and washed.

All filters have a limited life span and will lead to replacing as over time. Because they lose their dust holding capability. We Suggested replacing the filter in a split system every two year.

6.8: Summary of Energy conservation in AC’s:
S.No. Suggested Energy Energy Energy cost conservation measure saving saving potential in potential per KWH year in Rs 1 Increase in temperature 7740.8 47219 set point of room air conditioners from existing 22 to 23 to 25 degree centigrade 2 Switching of room air 2756.7 16815.87 conditioners 30 minutes before conclusion off office hours Total 10497.5 64034.87 CHAPTER NO:7
GROUNDING AUDIT

Grounding audit
Grounding audit was done out by Clamp on Earth tester and voltage at various points. Results of earth resistance and leakage currents are tabulated in table.

Table 7.1: Grounding Audit Results
Location Resistance(Ohm) Voltage Size and Run Run Remark
E to N LT PANEL LEFT SIDE 0.086 0.8 V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
LT PANEL RIGHT SIDE 0.04 1.29 V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
DG BODY FRONT SIDE 0.22 2.4V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
DG NEUTREL 2.2 1.9V 35 X 5 GI strip 1 –
DG BODY BACK SIDE 0.29 2.0V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
TRANSFORMER BODY 700 35 X 5 GI strip 1 –
TRANSFORMER NEUTREL 1 2.1 0.85V 35 X 5 CU strip 1 –
TRANSFORMER NEUTREL 2 0.62 1.45V 35 X 5 CU strip 1 –
UPS LT ROOM RIGHT SIDE 0.21 2.1V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
ENERGY METER 0.20 1.76V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
UPS 10 KVA 0.17 3.1V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
UPS 10 KVA 5.6 2.6V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
Main Input HT Cable NO EARTH IS CONNECTED Provide Earth
connection
LA 0.9 2.9V 16 SQ mm copper PVC 1 –
wire ME 0.01 1.8V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
CTP Machine 0.025 1.1V 25 X 5 GI strip 1 –
7.1: Conclusion:
Earth resistance at many places is within recommended limit. At some places earth resistance values are
higher/open. Recommended to check earth connection. At few places earthing connections are not
provided. Recommended to provide earth connection. It is necessary to carry out maintenance of earth pit
by periodical salted water dosing to take care seasonal earth resistance variation.

APPENDIX
GENERAL ENERGY CONSERVATION RECOMMENDATION
Apart from the various mentioned Energy conservation measures (ECM) there are certain recommendations which will help in near future to increase energy efficiency to reduce energy costs. Change of work culture and good housekeeping practices in the organization will lead to 10% energy saving without additional investment.

Checklist and tips for energy efficiency in electrical utility
Correct P.F. to unity under rated load conditions to take maximum benefit of power factor incentive.
Set transformer taps at optimum setting
Check utility KWH meter reading with your own TOD meter. Install TOD meter at incomer and get it calibrated.
Shut off unnecessary computers, printers and copiers when not in use.
Tune up the HVAC control system (heating/ventilation/air conditioning)
Eliminate or reduce heat generation in air-conditioned area.
Use appropriate thermostat settings of air conditioners and water coolers.
Clean air conditioner coils periodically and comb mashed fins.
Check air conditioners filters on a regular basis and clean/change if necessary.
Seal leakages in air-conditioned area.
Switch off air conditioners one hour before the end of office hours.
Managing Lighting Energy: Inefficiencies in lighting systems may be due to a number of factors
Lighting power density is too high.
Lights being left ON when not required.
Lights poorly located.
Inefficient luminaries.
Inefficient lamps.
Inefficient ballasts.
Poor maintenance of lamps and luminaries
Dark and dirty room surfaces.
Energy Management opportunities
Switch off unnecessary lights
Remove redundant fixtures
Fixtures re-lamping
Fixtures de-lamping
Fixtures modification or replacement
Cleaning light fixtures, lamp reflectors and room surface regularly to maintain better level of illumination
Luminaries of higher space to height ratio.
Higher reflectance surfaces of the room
14 Selective switching
Task oriented lighting.
Consider lowering the fixtures to enable using less of them
Consider day lighting and sky lighting.
Consider painting the walls a lighter colour and using less lighting fixtures or lower wattages.
Use task lighting and reduce background illumination.
Utilize daylight for indoor illumination which leads to the reduction of daytime consumption of energy attributable to illumination system.
The key rules for energy efficient lighting
Rule 1: With Use the most efficient light source. Rule 2: Use the bulb light output efficiently.

Rule 3: Maintain lighting equipment in proper order.

Rule 4: Use properly installed layout of energy effective lighting schemes.

REFERENCE
1. NPC energy audit manual and reports
2. Energy management handbook, John Wiley and Sons – Wayne C. Turner
3. Guide to Energy Management, Cape Hart, Turner and Kennedy
4. Cleaner Production – Energy Efficiency Manual for GERIAP, UNEP, Bangkok prepared by National Productivity Council www.eeca.govt.nz www.energyusernews.com/5 energy audit guide by CRES. http://www.cres.gr/kape/pdf/download/guide_a_uk.pdf
6 www.beeindia.gov.in7 www.google.com