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Kersting’s groundnut

February 17, 2019 0 Comment

Kersting’s groundnut (Macrotyloma geocarpum (Harms) Maréchal and Baudet) is a minor legume of Fabaceae family. It is highly consumed in savanna area of West Africa, its primary centre of origin (Achigan Dako et al., 2006; Mergeai, 1993). In Ghana, kersting’s groundnut is produced in Northern, Upper eastern and Upper western regions (Bayorbor et al., 2010). Consumers prefer kersting’s groundnut to cowpea and Bambara groundnut for special meals (Achigan Dako et al., 2006). Therefore, its contributes to poverty alleviation, soil nitrogen restitution and is very worthless for most traditional and religious rites (Ayenan et al., 2016). The uses patterns are almost similar in West Africa’s countries and need to be harmonized . Unfortunately, its production is still weak and highly facing genetics erosion (Amujoyegbe et al., 2007). Improvement program should help to exploit its huge genetic diversity and nutrient potential in order to promote food security in West Africa.
Kersting’s groundnut usages (medicinal, religion, culinary) vary among local communities (Ayenan et al., 2016). Therefore, the logic that govern it utilization should also widely vary (Gaoue et al., 2017) and should be understood. An ethnobotany study need to be conducted to deep the community behavior on the specie and to fill some gap observe on the work did by Adu-Gyamfi et al. 2011. Deriving from the summarized work did in Africa growing countries (Adu-Gyamfi et al., 2011; Amujoyegbe et al., 2007; Amuti, 1980; Assogba et al., 2016; Bayorbor et al., 2010; Mergeai, 1993) , there is a need to preserve and harmonize currents knoledge of West Africa Kersting’s groundnut users in order to prevent cutural and traditional pratctices loss.
The specie is cultivated for its grains with high nutritional content (Achigan Dako et al., 2006; Ajayi et al., 2009; Chickwendu, 2007; Obasi et al., 2003). The grains contain highly, crude protein (21.3 g/100 g); amino acid such as arginine (15.9 g/100 g), Leucine (7.2 g/100 g), (Obasi et al., 2003) and weak fat level (1.0g/100 g) (Ajayi et al., 2009) which is good for both consumer and seed storage. Three mains genotypes have been identified and no one of researches completed (Ajayi et al., 2009; Aremu et al., 2008; Obasi et al., 2003) have evaluated the nutrients content of each of them. Since, the three existing cultivar are used for different end (Ayenan et al., 2016) and perform differently (Adu-Gyamfi et al., 2012; Assogba et al., 2016; Bayorbor et al., 2010), they will surely exhibit variable nutrient amount and specifically variable level of protein. Accordingly, Assogba, Ewedje et al. 2016 state that the black and red cultivars may have special nutritional values. Firstly, knowing the nutritional value of each cultivar could help to understand the reason why they are used for some specifically end and how they can be used to improve other cultivar or crops. Secondly, that could also help to spot the resistance of the Black and mottled cultivar to the weevil than that of the white cultivar (Ayenan et al., 2016). Also, the biochemical composition such as, proteins, lipids (Hosamani et al., 2013; Vinutha et al., 2015), soluble Oligosaccharides (Bentsink et al., 2000) of the seed has a relevant effect on the seed storability and knowing them is relevant to predict the storage condition that will preserve he seed qualities.
The pinpoint cause of seed deterioration or seed loss need to be figure out (Vinutha et al., 2015) but the most the important factors to manage in order to avoid this constraint have been broadly discussed (Delouche et al., 1973; Probst et al., 2010). Although, seed loss is severely caused by inadaptable storage condition and pests damage (Badii et al., 2011; Mergeai, 1993). The storage systems used by the farmer to store Kersting’s groundnut seed and grain is a local adaptation, and is consequently unsafe for both their health (Abdullah et al., 2016; Assogba et al., 2016) and the seed viability. At the side of the genetics resources management institutions, cultivar need to be conserved (Balick, 1996; Mergeai, 1993) because those hold by some institution in both Africa, Europe (Achigan Dako et al., 2006) are not enough and representative to evaluate the genetic variation (Ayenan et al., 2016). No previous study has been conducted to determine the optimal storage condition for kersting’s groundnut seed.
The best way to store seed is to control the mains factors such as: temperature, moisture content, relative humidity and storage duration (Ellis et al., 1980; Hong et al., 1996a; Hong et al., 1996b; Pouyesh, 2016). Another best tool to manage the seed storability is the iso-viabity curve (Kruse, 2000). Therefore, find the lower or higher temperature which can be matched with the appropriate moisture content is relevant for kersting’s groundnut seed storage. It has been assumed that most species seeds are orthodox (Hong et al., 1996a), but no one study has precisely emphasized the position of Kersting’s groundnut . Since the seed longevity vary among accession of the same species (Hong et al., 1996a) and depending on the seed source (Probst et al., 2010), identify the adequate storage condition for each accession of kersting’s groundnut will be tackled.
The aims of this work are to investigate the relationships between each local communities and existing kersting’s groundnut cultivar in Ghana, understand how it contributes to food and nutritional security for local communities in Ghana; to evaluate kersting’s groundnut seed storage behavior in order to maintain the seed quality and augment seed shelf life during storage, which will promote its biodiversity conservation and mitigate genetics erosion.