Jie, S. & John, B. (2016). “When CSR Is a Social Norm.” Journal of Management, 42: 6, 723–1746.
In this qualitative article, the researchers studied how the dynamics around corporate social responsibility and how perceived organizational support interlocked with it. The purpose of the research was to figure out how socially responsible human resource management (SRHRM) affected employee work behavior and if corporate social responsibility could be affected by the relationship the above two factors in question had. The researchers conducted a thorough literature review in which the following subject categories were studied. These subject categories encompassed: a) organizational identification; b) social identity theory; c) task performance; and d) extra- role helping behavior. From the literature review, the researchers developed six hypotheses; only three will be discussed. The first hypothesis tested was, “SRHRM will be positively related to employee organizational identification, which, in turn, will be positively related to employee task performance” (1727). The second hypothesis tested was, “SRHRM will be positively related to employee organizational identification, which, in turn, will be positively related to employee extra-role helping behavior” (1727). The third hypothesis tested was, “POS will be significantly related to organizational identification as well as moderate the relationship between SRHRM and employee organizational identification such that higher levels of POS associated with a stronger SRHRM–organizational identification relationship” (1727). The population studied encompassed of male and female workers from several Chinese manufacturing companies, some joint ventured, and some privately owned. The method used was questionnaires that were handed out in the and recollected. The data was analyzed by ANOVA. The results of the study confirmed all three hypotheses. There were three limitations in the research. The first limitation was the research over-relied on data analyzed by previous researchers on the same topic. Doing so made the researchers create six hypotheses thus, building a more complex conclusion. The second limitation was the researchers could have used a much more straightforward method to gather the data. That would have motivated more than 44% of employees to take part in the research. The third limitation was the researcher lacked psychological touch; how sure were the researchers that the remarks from peers and supervisors were not biased?
Kenneth, D., Geraldine, M., Florence, S. & Valerie, S. (2014). “Understanding Employees’ Responses to Corporate Social Responsibility: Mediating Roles of Overall Justice and Organizational Identification.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 25:1, 91–112.
In this qualitative article, the researchers studied how employees respond to corporate social responsibilities that their organizations and if their perceptions affect their work performance. The purpose of the research was to show, how ethics and professionalism affects employee satisfaction. The researchers conducted a thorough literature review in which the following subject categories were studied. These subject categories encompassed: a) job satisfaction and turnover; b) employees’ perception of external and internal CSR; c) social identity theory; and d) organizational identification (OI). From the literature review, the researchers developed three hypotheses. The first hypothesis tested was, “Employees’ perceptions of (a) external and (b) internal CSR relate positively to job satisfaction.” (94). The second hypothesis tested was, “Employees’ OI mediates the relationship between perceived (a) external and (b) internal CSR and job satisfaction” (96). The third hypothesis tested was, “Overall justice mediates the relationship between perceived (a) external and (b) internal CSR with employees’ O” (97). The population studied encompassed of men and women with the average age of 33 who worked on the staff of a merging hospital in Belgium with an organizational tenure of nine years. The method used was surveys that was translated into French and passed out and recollected. The data was analyzed using Likert type scales that had five constructs designed to pick a peak answer from the respondents. The results of the study confirmed all three hypotheses. There were three limitations in the research. The first limitation was the researchers surveyed an institution where the average tenure was nine years; there could be the case made that is those employees have just conformed to the organization social norm. The second limitation was the research was only carried out in one medical facility. The analysis did not represent the views of the whole business industries. The third limitation was the method used to collect the data was very inappropriate. I suggest that next time they use questionnaires that would allow the respondents give specifics.
Imran, H., Zahid, R. & Ghulam, A. (2016). “How Do Internal and External CSR Affect Employees’ Organizational Identification? A Perspective from the Group Engagement Model.” Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 2016.00788.
In this qualitative article, the researchers studied how diverse types of corporate social responsibilities would either reduce or increase the magnitude of work output of an employee. The purpose of the research was to prove companies’ employees should be factored into the corporate social responsibility equation and not just the customers and stakeholders. The researchers conducted a thorough literature review in which the following subject categories were studied. These subject categories encompassed: a) the motivating factor to the external prestige of workers; b) there is no “best way” of carrying out CSR; c) key role in evaluating activities; and d) employees’ calling orientation. From the literature review, the researchers developed four hypotheses, and three will be discussed. The first hypothesis tested was, “Perceived external prestige mediates the relationship between external CSR and organizational identification.” (4). The second hypothesis tested was, “Perceived internal respect mediates the relationship between internal CSR and organizational identification” (4). The third hypothesis tested the relationship between external CSR and perceived external prestige is moderated by employees’ calling orientation such that the stronger the calling orientation, the stronger will be the relationship and vice versa” (5). The population studied encompassed of Pakistani citizen (85% male) which worked for five different multinational corporations. These corporations included banking and telecommunication organizations. The method used was questionnaires that were distributed and returned. The data was analyzed using SPSS 21 and AMOS 21. The results of the study confirmed all three hypotheses. There were three limitations in the research. The first limitation the researchers only focused on two types organizations, which does not represent the whole sector of workers across various levels of companies. The second limitation was the research, was conducted in a male-dominated country, hence the 85% male majority of respondents. There was no fair representation of male and female employees’ The third limitation the research did not employ the psychological and behavioral part of analysis; in the next study, I recommend that one statistical application is used in computing data to give the results a uniformity score.
It is notable that there are several ways in which the three articles relate to each other. One way is in which they connected is that they highlight the relevant role played by the motivation of employees towards the attainment of the highest levels of employee satisfaction. Even though many factors play an integral role towards the achievement of employee satisfaction, the level of motivation is always essential. In line with the stipulations provided within the context of the articles, motivation enhances the way employees feel appreciated and integrated into the organization. This is always essential towards the development of satisfaction as well as strengthening the framework of productivity. Kenneth et al. article demonstrated how an organization could foster a safe, healthy work environment as well a work-life balance can lead to job satisfaction. Another significant way in which the different articles relate is that they have captured the importance of leadership towards the attainment of employee welfare and wellbeing within an organization. Depending on the leadership strategy and approach that is within an organization, employee wellbeing can either be enhanced or compromised. The leadership of an organization prioritizes the framework of employee wellbeing, it then follows that they are highly motivated. The role played by social activities towards the strengthening of corporate social responsibility initiatives within an organization has also been evaluated and highlighted within the context of the articles. The articles accentuate the need for organizations to ensure that their respective blueprints for corporate social responsibility aligned towards the best possible standards. This is essential in that it goes a long way towards promoting the image of an organization as well as the brand (Kenneth,et al). Given these aspects, it is evident that there are several ways in which the three articles relate. Shen et al.’s article focused on the perceived organizational support (POS) which is how an employee believes an organization value their contribution and their wellbeing. For human resource management, the articles have implications especially when it comes to how employee welfare managed as well as the way duties and responsibilities allocated to employees.