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INFLUENCE OF RESOURCES ON IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC PLANS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

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INFLUENCE OF RESOURCES ON IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC PLANS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR, A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AUTHORITY
BY
STEPHEN KIRUKU KAMAU
A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AT JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY
2018
DECLARATIONThis research project is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other university.

STEPHEN KIRUKU KAMAU
HD333-C002-0423/2012
Signature ________________________Date ___________________
This research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as University Supervisor.

SUPERVISOR
DR. DENNIS JUMA
Signature ___________________Date ___________________
DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to my loving and supportive family.They have shown their sincere and relentless contributions towards creating an ideal environment to enable me further my studies. I also give thanks to the Almighty God for having brought me this far.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTMy special thank you goes to the Almighty God for having given me the strength to persevere all the obstacles that came on my way. My loving family have shown their support and committment towards creating an ideal learning environment,I hereby acknowledge their valued cintribution. My supervisor Dr Dennis Juma and fellow scholars have shown their sincere contributions and I wish to thank them for their support and advice.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-2” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc507605286 h iiDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc507605287 h iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc507605288 h ivLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc507605289 h viiLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc507605290 h viiiLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS PAGEREF _Toc507605291 h ixABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc507605292 h xCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc507605293 h 1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc507605294 h 11.1 Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc507605295 h 11.2 Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc507605296 h 81.3 Objective of The Study PAGEREF _Toc507605297 h 101.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc507605298 h 101.5 Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc507605299 h 111.6 Scope Of The Study PAGEREF _Toc507605300 h 11CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc507605301 h 12LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc507605302 h 122.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc507605303 h 122.2 Theoretical Review PAGEREF _Toc507605304 h 122.3 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc507605305 h 152.4 Empirical Review PAGEREF _Toc507605306 h 272.5 Critique of Existing Literature PAGEREF _Toc507605307 h 322.6 Research Gap PAGEREF _Toc507605308 h 342.7 Summary PAGEREF _Toc507605309 h 34CHAPTER THREE: PAGEREF _Toc507605310 h 36RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc507605311 h 363.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc507605312 h 363.2 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc507605313 h 363.3 Population PAGEREF _Toc507605314 h 373.4 Sampling Frame PAGEREF _Toc507605315 h 383.5 Sample and Sampling Technique PAGEREF _Toc507605316 h 383.6 Data Collection Instruments PAGEREF _Toc507605317 h 393.7 Data Collection Procedure PAGEREF _Toc507605318 h 393.8 Pilot Test Study PAGEREF _Toc507605319 h 403.9 Data Processing and Analysis PAGEREF _Toc507605320 h 41CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc507605321 h 43DATA FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc507605322 h 434.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc507605323 h 434.2 Response Rate PAGEREF _Toc507605324 h 434.3 Reliability Test PAGEREF _Toc507605325 h 444.4 Demographic Information PAGEREF _Toc507605326 h 444.5 Descriptive Statistics PAGEREF _Toc507605327 h 474.6 Inferential Statistics PAGEREF _Toc507605328 h 55CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc507605329 h 60SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc507605330 h 605.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc507605331 h 605.2 Summary of Findings PAGEREF _Toc507605332 h 605.3 Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc507605333 h 615.4 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc507605334 h 625.5 Areas for Further Studies PAGEREF _Toc507605335 h 63REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc507605336 h 64APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc507605337 h 67Appendix I: Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc507605338 h 67Appendix II: Work Plan PAGEREF _Toc507605339 h 72Appendix III : Budget PAGEREF _Toc507605340 h 73
LIST OF TABLES TOC h z c “Table” Table 3.1: Target Population PAGEREF _Toc507605341 h 37Table 3.2: Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc507605342 h 39Table 4.3: Response Rate PAGEREF _Toc507605343 h 43Table 4.4: Reliability Analysis PAGEREF _Toc507605344 h 44Table 4.5: Effect of Financial Resource on Implementation of Strategic Plans PAGEREF _Toc507605345 h 48Table 4.6: Effect of support on implementation of strategic plans PAGEREF _Toc507605346 h 50Table 4.7: Effect of stakeholders’ involvement on implementation PAGEREF _Toc507605347 h 52Table 4.8: Strategic plan implementation PAGEREF _Toc507605348 h 55Table 4.9: Correlation Coefficient PAGEREF _Toc507605349 h 56Table 4.10: Model Summary PAGEREF _Toc507605350 h 57Table 4.11: Analysis of Variance PAGEREF _Toc507605351 h 57Table 4.12: Coefficients PAGEREF _Toc507605352 h 59
LIST OF FIGURES TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc507605451 h 16Figure 4.2: Age of Respondents PAGEREF _Toc507605452 h 45Figure 4.3: Period worked in the organization PAGEREF _Toc507605453 h 45Figure 4.4: Level of education of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc507605454 h 46Figure 4.5: Management level of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc507605455 h 47Figure 4.6: Organization strategic plans PAGEREF _Toc507605456 h 53Figure 4.7: Organization implementation of strategic plans PAGEREF _Toc507605457 h 53LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
ANT Actor Network Theory
DIT Directorate of Industrial Training
KBV Knowledge Based View
MTP Medium Term Plan
NITA National Industrial Training Authority
NITC National Industrial Training Council
RBV Resource Based View
SAGA Semi-Autonomous Government Agency
SPSS Statistical package for Social Science
ABSTRACT
Several strategic plans have been developed and implemented in the National Industrial Training Authority. However, most of these strategies were ineffectively and inefficiently executed or not implemented at all. Several factors like source of funds, financial resources, external and internal support and stakeholder involvement were cited to have contributed to this scenario. Failure to effectively monitor and evaluate implementation of the strategic plan at the National Industrial Training Authority has led to massive misuse of limited government resources as well as wastage time. This has resulted to poor service delivery to the country. Therefore, it is imperative that pragmatic strategic planning coupled with timely intervention, monitoring and prioritized problem solving be the major steps the National Industrial Training Authority can take to address the resource allocation challenges they face in the implementation of strategic plan. This study sought to establish the effects of mitigating resource allocation on implementation of strategic plans in the public sector, with reference to National Industrial Training Authority. A case study research design was adopted. The study population was 156 employees of National Industrial Training Authority Head office. Stratified random sampling was used to select 47 respondents. The research used questionnaires. The researcher administered a questionnaire to each member of the target population. The researcher carried out a pilot study to pretest and validates the questionnaire. Data collected was quantitative in nature and was analysed by descriptive analysis such as mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentages using tools such as Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis, where the opinion of the respondent was presented in prose form. This study employed a multiple linear regression analysis. The study found out that sufficient resources are a crucial factor in strategy implementation in the organization; the management creates more effective awareness for the strategic plan by communicating its benefits to the workers, involvement of managers helps build consensus for implementation of strategic plans. The study concluded that financial resources are positively related to implementation of strategic plans, support is positively related to implementation of strategic plans and stakeholder’s involvement is positively related to implementation of strategic plans. The study recommended managers should introduce financial resources in their strategic plans as this will promote faster implementation. The management should support the implementation of strategic plans, failure to which it will lead to organization failure because the other employees will think it is not much important and Stakeholders should be part of the implementation process; this will motivate other employees to implement the plan. The study recommends that further studies should be conducted on the influence of resources on implementation of strategic plans in the non- governmental organizations sector in Kenya.

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the StudyImplementation of a strategic plan is an operation-oriented as well as a “make-thing happen” activity aimed at performing core business activities in a strategy-supportive manner (Raps, 2015). This makes it the most demanding and time consuming part of strategic management since it involves converting strategic plans into actions and results thus testing a manager’s ability to direct organizational change, motivate people, build and strengthen organization competencies and competitive capabilities, create and nurture a strategy-supportive work climate, and meet or beat performance targets (David, 2009). The factors emerge from the fact that implementation of strategic plans involves assessing what an organization will have to do differently or better: given its particular operating practices and organizational circumstances, executing a strategy completely and achieving the targeted financial and strategic performances (Thomson, Strickland ; Gamble, 2010).
In Kenya, most of the organizations view it as fashion coming up with strategic plans both from the private and the public sector. The strategic plans which spell out the various strategies are very good in paper but this is not necessarily in tandem with their implementation. This can be attributed to several bottle necks to effective strategy implementation that exist. One of the serious one is lack of involvement and less stakeholder analysis. Several studies have been undertaken on this topic of strategy implementation (Kamau, 2006; Machuki, 2005; Koske, 2003). These studies mainly focused on the strategy implementation and its challenges in private organizations with definite and formal structures.

1.1.1 Strategic Planning
Strategic planning is defined as the process of diagnosing an organization’s external and internal environments, deciding on a vision and mission, developing overall goals, creating and selecting general strategies to be pursued, and allocating resources to achieve the organization’s goals (Raps, 2015). The objective of strategic planning is to align an organization’s activities with its environment, thereby providing for its continuing survival and effectiveness. It requires an organization to monitor its internal and external environments constantly for changes that may require modifying existing strategic and tactical plans or developing different ones altogether (David, 2009).

Central to strategic planning is the determination of long-term goals and objectives of an organization serving as a framework within which choices are made concerning the nature and direction of the organization (David, 2009). This framework helps in the allocation of resources in order to enhance financial and strategic performance (Dincer, Tatoglu & Glaister, 2012). By “nature “and “direction” implies that decisions are of fundamental importance to the organization as opposed to less important, operational decisions. Strategic planning also places emphasis on resource allocation and plans throughout the entire organization (Dincer et a.l, 2012). From this perspective, strategy is considered as a deliberate planning process, initiated by top management, based on an elaborate industry analysis and aimed at designing a cohesive grand strategy for the organization (Raps, 2015).
Strategic planning further ensures that the organization has appropriate structures, processes and culture or mindset, to carry through a programme of change (Raps, 2015). Strategic planning has also been described as a formal managerial process. Dincer, et al (2012) indicated that it can be broadly defined as the process of determining the mission, major objectives, strategies, and policies that govern the acquisition and allocation of resources to achieve organizational aims.
To Johnson and Scholes (2008), strategic planning is a systematic analysis and evaluation of procedures to formulate strategy as well as the process of implementing that strategy. Also, Strategic planning can be considered from a content or process point of view (Hartman, 2014). The content relates to the distinct elements of the strategic plan which differ for every organization and the process relates to the mechanisms for the development of the strategic plan and its subsequent deployment. Effective strategic planning clearly requires defined achievable goals, systematic integration of a number of sequential activities, and above all commitment to implement the plan (David, 2009). There is no doubt that a well-conceived plan can be an effective catalyst for managing change and enhancing decision-making processes in organizations.

1.1.2 Implementation of Strategic Plans
Spotting problems early as a result of close monitoring of the environment is core to dynamic strategic planning. Effective implementation of strategy is essential to its success (McGuiness and Morgan, 2015; David, 2009). However, there is evidence in the strategy literature about it being neglected and ill-conceived (Kennedy et al., 2013). In particular, Noble and Mokwa, (2009) believe that the nature of strategic implementation and the reason why it succeeds or not have not been well understood. According to McGuinnes and Morgan (2015), in this timeless framework, strategic planning’s main themes are strategy formulation and implementation, which are treated separately and sequentially. They further state this traditional, linear approach emphasizes the design of organizational structures and systems; that implementation is an administrative issue and follows after formulation as day follows night.

Cespedes and Piercy (2012) have referred to the formulation-implementation dichotomy as the heart of the traditional approach stating that the many difficulties that arise in the practice of implementation can be attributed to it. To resolve this problem a different mix of skills and abilities are needed (McGuinnes ; Morgan, 2015) and to this end they propose three themes; these are a process perspective on implementing strategy, an emergence view and co-aligning the organization with its environment. A process perspective of implementing strategy widens the traditional focus on organizational structure and control systems by also including behavioural and interpersonal process elements (McGuinnes ; Morgan, 2015). This they said, would introduce psychological issues such as individual motivation and commitment; and issues relating to social and political processes such as organizational culture, leadership, and learning which requires consideration as a result of their complex interrelationships with organizational structure and control systems (Pfeffer, 2014).

An emergence view of strategy deliberately puts formulation and implementation together (McGuinnes ; Morgan, 2005). They are viewed from this perspective as interactive and reciprocal processes, intertwined in a higher-level process of strategy emergence, adaptation and improvisation (Pearce ; Robinson, 2013). The third theme that McGuinnes and Morgan (2015) propose towards solving the formulation implementation problem is co-alignment of the organization with its environment as a process indicative of strategic intent; noting that it involves the purposeful, adaptive coordination of organizational goals and actions over time. This is an essential part of the dynamic concept of strategy. These themes, they argue, provide a coherent basis for formulating and implementing strategy (Pfeffer, 2014).

1.1.3 Resources
Resource constraints are apparent during strategic planning in public entities, in particular, those dependent on the government for funding (Mintzberg, 2008). This is so partly because such entities are subject to political factors, making funds availability and allocation more difficult when compared to the private sector. In some instances, political support might be lacking to fund strategic projects even though there could be demand from the community. In other instances, political support may be available to fund non-strategic projects which have no real demand. The legal environment in which public entities operate is another constraining factor to strategic planning. According to Lynch (2007) this environment makes it difficult for entities to be flexible and autonomous.

Ungerer et al (2007) and Johnson (2008) assert that performance indicators and expectations for public organizations are normally unclear and vague as a result of the requirements by numerous and varied stakeholders. Douglas (2013) adds that performance in government is difficult to measure due to the need to report on outcomes as compared to outputs. Outputs, such as the number of houses built, are the direct effects of actions taken, and are easy to measure. However, outputs present a limited picture of a public entity’s performance. Unlike the private sector firms, public entities do not have a profit motive, which is a significant performance indicator for the private firms.
Legislated provisions and mandated objectives, functions and responsibilities are instead used as performance indicators in the public sector (Douglass, 2013). According to David (2009) public sector managers tend to perceive their goals as achievable and straightforward, depending on the degree of the entity’s publicness. However, entities that have a variety of stakeholders normally experience problems during goal setting processes. Such processes tend to be politicized, resulting in goals that are general ambiguous, not specific, and difficult to implement. Joyce (2014) asserts that to counter the problem of goal conflict, public sector strategic management processes need to accommodate the results of consultations and involvement by the public. It is the coordination of information from various stakeholders that creates a challenge for public entities in their effort to reach consensus in goals that are sometime conflicting.

1.1.4 National Industrial Training Authority (NITA)The objective of the Industrial Training Act was to ensure adequate supply of skilled manpower at all levels in industry. The Directorate of Industrial Training therefore had the mandate to fulfill the obligation of the Government to provide quality training to all Kenyans and act as a platform for sharing skills. It was anticipated that the Directorate would play a pivotal role in establishing mechanisms to promote closer collaboration between training institutions and industry in order to offer demand driven curricula that target not only Kenya but also the East African region and beyond. However, the Directorate faced several challenges which limited its role in skills development. The most notable of these challenges was inadequate workforce in the face of emerging and increasing stakeholders’ demands. The resulting structural deficiencies had led to work overload, inhibited communication flow and distorted the set reporting structure. All these challenges hampered operations of the Directorate.

Due to the emerging challenges the Government proposed to transform the Directorate of Industrial Training (DIT) into a Semi-Autonomous Government Agency (SAGA) so as to enhance its capacity to spearhead industrial skills development in the country. The process of transforming the DIT into a SAGA started in 1999, and involved several activities by various taskforces constituted by the National Industrial Training Council (NITC). The Sector Plan for Labour, Youth and Human Resource Development of the First Medium Term Plan (MTP) 2008-2012 proposed this transformation as a key programme to enhance the institution’s flexibility and effectiveness in discharging its mandates. The transformation commenced through legislative reforms in the Industrial Training (Amendment) Bill.

It was envisaged that the transformation would result in the improvement of the quality and efficiency of industrial training and attachment, so as to ensure adequate supply of properly trained manpower at all levels in industry. The transformation was achieved through the enactment of the Industrial Training (Amendment) Act, 2011 in order to: establish a semi-autonomous body to spearhead integrated industrial training at all levels of industry; strengthen the DIT financial base by improving the levy collection system and diversify sources of funding to complement Government grants; improve reimbursement system to employers for training costs; attract and retain adequate qualified personnel; and formulate policies and implement systems that ensure the greatest possible improvement in the quality and efficiency of the training of personnel engaged in industry.

1.2 Statement of the ProblemSeveral strategic plans have been developed and implemented in the National Industrial Training Authority. However, most of these strategies were ineffectively and inefficiently executed or not implemented at all (NITA, 2014). Several factors like source of funds, financial resources, management and coordination were cited to have contributed to this scenario (Kariuki, 2015). Failure to effectively monitor and evaluate implementation of the strategic plan at the National Industrial Training Authority has led to massive misuse of limited government resources as well as wasting time. This has resulted to poor service delivery to the country (GoK, 2014). Therefore, it is imperative that pragmatic strategic planning coupled to timely intervention, monitoring and prioritized problem solving be the major steps the National Industrial Training Authority can take to address the resource allocation challenges they face in the implementation of strategic plan.
Strategy implementation has become a significant management challenge which all types of organizations face today. To implement strategies successfully is critical for not only to the public but also for private organizations (Mwangi, 2015). Without proper implementation, even the most superior and fine strategy would not make the grade as established (Bhatti, 2011). Whether a strategy itself is consistent and fitting or not is a key question for successful strategy implementation, but even a consistent strategy cannot mean the same things to all people. Resources influence the success of strategy implementation, availability of resource ensures that strategic goals and budgets are realistic and achievable whilst maintaining some flexibility (Li, Guohui, ; Eppler, 2008).

In Kenya studies have been done on strategy implementation include Kiptugen (2003) who did a study to determine the strategic responses of Kenya Commercial Bank to a changing competitive environment. Muturi (2005) on the other hand did a study to determine the strategic responses of Christian churches in Kenya to changes in the external environment. Karanja (2004) carried out a survey on strategic planning and performance of public corporations in Kenya. Muguni (2007) studied the role of executive development in strategy implementation. His was a comparative study of KCB and National Bank of Kenya. These have failed to address the influence of resources on implementation of strategic plans, hence the research gap. The studies reviewed have also focused on different organization like churches and banks, which are different from public sector organization, which is the focus of the study. This study sought to fill the existing research gap by conducting a study to establish the influence of resources on implementation of strategic plans in the public sector in Kenya, with reference to National Industrial Training Authority.

1.3 Objective of The Study
1.3.1 General Objective
The general objective of the study was to establish the influence of resources on implementation of strategic plans in the public sector in Kenya, with reference to National Industrial Training Authority.

1.3.2 Specific Objective
The study was guided by the followings specific objective
To determine the effect of financial resource on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority
To examine the effect of support on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority
To assess the effect of stakeholders’ involvement on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority
1.4 Research QuestionsThe study sought to answer the following research questions
To what extent does financial resource affect implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority?
To what extent does support affect implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority?
What are the effects of stakeholder’s involvement on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority?
1.5 Significance of the study
The finding of the study was of great importance to the management of public sector in particular the National Industrial Training Authority, as they understood how resource allocation challenges affect the implementation of strategic plans. This assisted them to design strategies that assisted them in overcoming research allocation challenges during strategic plan implementation. The finding of the study was of great importance to policy maker in the public sector as they were enlightened on the how resource allocation challenges affecting implementation of strategic plans. This assisted them in designing policy that addressed resource allocation challenges during implementation of strategic plans in public sector. The study finding assisted future scholars and academicians to carry out future research and provide literature to future research. The study added to the body of knowledge on resource allocation challenges and implementation of strategic plans.

1.6 Scope Of The Study
The study sought to establish the relationship between handling of resource allocation challenges and implementation of strategic plans in the public sector in Kenya, the study will target the National Industrial Training Authority. The study targeted the employees of National Industrial Training Authority at their head office in Nairobi and regional offices in Athi River, Mombasa and Kisumu from where the sample size of the study was selected.

CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Introduction
This chapter reviewed the existing literature, information and publication on the topic related to the research problem by accredited scholars and researchers. This section examined what various scholars and authors have said about handling resource allocation challenges and implementation of strategic plans in the public sector, in particular it covered the theoretical review of literature, empirical review of the literature, critical review, conceptual framework and research gaps.

2.2 Theoretical Review
This study was guided by the following theories, the resource based view theory, actor network theory, and knowledge based view theory and Path – Goal Leadership theory. These theories were used to try to explain handling resource allocation challenges in implementation of strategic plans in the public sector.

2.2.1 Resource-Based Theory
The resource-based view of the firm (RBV) was initially promoted by Penrose (1959) and later expanded by others (Wernerfelt 1984, Barney 1991, Conner 1991). This theory combines concepts from organizational economics and strategic management (Barney, 1991). In this theory, the competitive advantage and superior performance of an organization is explained by the distinctiveness of its capabilities (Johnson et al, 2008). Traditional sources of competitive advantage such as financial and natural resources, technology and economies of scale can be used to create value. However, the resource-based argument is that these sources are increasingly accessible and easy to imitate (Pfeffer, 1994). Critics of this theory are of the opinion that the core position of this theory which sees resources as strategically valuable, rare, inimitable and organizationally embedded as sources of competitive advantage is not scientifically proven (Raps, 2015).

Barney’s (1991) resource based view reflects the fact that rival organizations may not perform at a level that could be identified as considerable competition for the organizations that have been well established in the market because they do not possess the required resources to perform at a level that creates a threat and competition. An organization should exploit existing business opportunities using the present resources while generating and developing a new set of resources to sustain its competitiveness in the future market environments; hence, an organization should be engaged in resource management.
There is always high uncertainty in the environment and for organizations to survive and stay ahead of competition, new resources become highly necessary (Crook et al, 2008). Strategic planning process will give the organization the needed opportunity to analyze the environment effectively and be able to prepare for any eventuality that may affect the plans therefore negatively affecting the performance of the organization. The study used the resource based view theory on the effect of financial resource on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority.

2.2.2 Knowledge-Based View Theory
According to Grant, the notable proponent of the knowledge-based view of the firm (KBV). The emerging knowledge-based view of the firm is not a theory of the firm in any formal sense” (Grant, 2002). The KBV of the firm is an extension of the RBV. The main tenet of the approach is that a firm is an institution for generating and applying various types of knowledge (Grant, 2012). While incorporating much of the content of the RBV, the KBV pays more attention to the process or path by which specific firm capabilities evolve and develop over time. This kind of development of knowledge through learning could be seen as a key element in achieving competitive advantage and superior performance (Moorman & Miner, 2008).
Although the emphasis on knowledge and capabilities has strengthened during the last decade it seems that empirical research has still not reached maturity, and there are no universally accepted guidelines for studying capabilities (Moorman & Miner, 2008). For the purposes of this paper, the following working definitions are sufficient. First, knowledge could be seen as a distinctive production factor that has a huge impact on productivity, innovation, and product development, for example (Webster, 2012). The study will use the knowledge based view theory to examine the effect of support on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority
2.2.3 Actor Network Theory
Actor Network Theory (ANT) was first developed at the Centre de Sociologie de l’Innovation (CSI) of the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris in the early 1980s by staff (Michel Callon and Bruno Latour) and visitors (including John Law). Actor Network Theory (ANT) is another important theory in strategic planning and implementation. ANT appears to detect effects of strategic planning activities in relation to who and what is involved, how, why, and with what results than the blunt-instrument variance methods noted above.
By allowing the actors to act and by focusing on the associations they trace, ANT appears to be particularly able to clarify in practice what it means to call strategic planning a way of knowing defined as ”a network of heterogeneous objects” (Douglas, 2013) that is ”relationally constituted” and ”kept together by active processes of ordering and sense making, where to know is to keep all these elements in alignment, given that order is not given but is always an emergent process (Hax, 2010). At the same time, by focusing on actors and the associations they trace (or not) ANT is well-suited to the task of discerning how and to what extent strategic planning in practice is inclusive, participatory, and democratic. This study will use the Actor Network Theory to assess the effect of stakeholders’ involvement on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority
2.3 Conceptual Framework
Conceptual framework is a scheme of concept (variables) which the researcher operationalizes in order to achieve the set objectives (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2008). A variable is a measure characteristic that assumes different values among subject, (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2008). Independent variables are variables that a researcher manipulates in order to determine its effect of influence on another variable, (Kombo & Tromp 2006), states that independent variable also called explanatory variables is the presumed change in the cause of changes in the dependent variable; the dependent variable attempts to indicate the total influence arising from the influence of the independent variable (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2008). This is illustrated in figure 2.1 below showing the two types of the variables.
952582550Financial resource
Government Resource
NITA resource
Levy

Implementations of strategic plan
Achievement of goals
Achievement of objective
Strategic direction
Support
Employee Skills
Competency
Employee training
Stakeholder involvement
MOU
Consultation
Formulation
00Financial resource
Government Resource
NITA resource
Levy

Implementations of strategic plan
Achievement of goals
Achievement of objective
Strategic direction
Support
Employee Skills
Competency
Employee training
Stakeholder involvement
MOU
Consultation
Formulation

Independent variable Dependent variable
Figure 2. SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Conceptual Framework2.3.1 Financial Resources
Finance is required for different purposes; to acquire fixed assets, purchase raw materials, acquire services for human beings, meeting operating expenses, adopt modern technology, meet contingencies, expand existing operations, to diversify and avail for business opportunity (Sharma, 2008). All resources of organization are indispensable, but financial resources have their own importance as funding is required by all department and at all levels of organization (Rajin, 2011). It is essential to optimally utilize this resource as it is a limited resource with alternative uses. Managing financial resources is about getting the most from the resources you have available. It involves implementing resource management procedures and controls and can include managing costs and maximizing opportunities by prioritizing these resources, implementing evaluation procedures to ensure resources are maximized and planning for potential changes that may lay ahead (Tulisian, 2002).

This process will ensure that strategic goals and budgets are realistic and achievable whilst maintaining some flexibility. Financial Management means planning, organizing, directing and controlling the financial activities such as procurement and utilization of funds of the enterprise (McGuiness & Morgan, 2015). The financial management is generally concerned with procurement, allocation and control of financial resources of a concern. The objectives can be either of the four; to ensure regular and adequate supply of funds to the concern, to ensure adequate returns to the shareholders which will depend upon the earning capacity, market price of the share, expectations of the shareholders, to ensure optimum funds utilization (David, 2009). Once the funds are procured, they should be utilized in maximum possible way at least cost and to ensure safety on investment, i.e., funds should be invested in safe ventures so that adequate rate of return can be achieved. Any activity whether economic or non-economic, requires money to run it (Tulsian, 2002).

Estimation of capital requirements: A finance manager has to make estimation with regards to capital requirements of the company. This will depend upon expected costs and profits and future programmes and policies of a concern. Estimations have to be made in an adequate manner which increases earning capacity of enterprise. Determination of capital composition: Once the estimation has been made, the capital structure has to be decided. This involves short- term and long- term debt equity analysis. This will depend upon the proportion of equity capital a company is possessing and additional funds which have to be raised from outside parties (Noble & Mokwa, 2009). Diversification plans of the company attained profits – The volume have to be decided which will depend upon expansion, innovation, Management of cash: Finance manager has to make decisions with regards to cash management (Kurtko, 2013).

Sufficient resources are another crucial factor in strategy implementation. First, because of the large scope of most strategic decisions, sufficient funding is needed for the implementation process (McGuinnes & Morgan, 2015). People are the second important resource. Personnel with the right skills for the new strategic decisions should be involved in the implementation. Furthermore, these employees should have enough time available for the implementation. They should either be freed from other tasks or they should understand the priorities given to their different tasks. Enough time should, in general, be allocated to the implementation process (Alexander, 2010).

Lack of resources, i.e. time and people, is another reason for failure of strategy implementation. For one, implementing strategy, in most cases, took more time than expected or planned beforehand (Al-Ghamdi, 2008; Alexander, 2010). In the research of Alexander (2010) some executives even stated that top management underestimates the time needed to complete a strategy implementation. Time is pressured even more if priorities are not set correctly. It should therefore be clear to all employees involved in the implementation, which activities have most priority for execution. This includes implementation activities but also regular work and other projects. If priorities are not defined properly, it could either cause loss of attention for the strategy implementation or loss of attention for the regular work and other projects (Al-Ghamdi, 2008)
Both could lead to problems in the organization (Al-Ghamdi, 2008; Alexander, 2010). The lack of the right skills and abilities of the people involved in the strategy implementation have also been found to cause problems (Al-Ghamdi, 2008). Furthermore, employees do not always receive the correct training and instruction to be able to perform their work, which may have changed due to the newly implemented strategy (Al- Ghamdi, 2008). When a set of strategic programs has been decided upon it is implied that resource allocations have been made for these programs, often for several years into the future. Without providing for the necessary assets and strategic expenditures a strategic program cannot be implemented (Otley, 2011).
However, in most organizations there is a long tradition of allocating resources to capital investments through capital budgeting and for strategic expenditures through discretionary expenditure budgets. There is a problem when these traditional resource allocation procedures are not modified to be consistent with the resource allocation pattern implied by the strategic programme activities; the new role for the traditional capital budgeting and strategic expenditure tools should be as fine-tuning and safety-checking devices for the strategic resource allocation pattern, and not as devices to frustrate the progress of strategic programs (Ahn, 2011).
Unfortunately, the latter might easily become the case, particularly when different organizational staff groups are primarily responsible for the activities. Many projects are based on cost budget. There is a tendency in the private sector to not properly estimate the true costs of implementing strategic plan for fear of not getting the project funded adequately. The most common of the forgotten costs are the indirect or non-project costs. There is a tendency in some departments to under-estimate the true costs of implementing strategic plan for fear of not getting the project funded (Aaltonen & Ikåvalko, 2012). The most common of the forgotten costs are the indirect or non-project costs. Some of the most often overlooked costs include staff related costs (recruitment costs, training, benefits and statutory payments), start-up costs, overhead or core costs (rent, insurance, utilities), vehicle running costs, equipment maintenance (for photocopiers and computers), governance costs (board meeting) and audit fees (Okumus & Roper, 2008).

2.3.2 Support
The most important factor when implementing a strategy is the top level management’s commitment to the strategic direction itself. This is undoubtedly a prerequisite for strategy implementation. Therefore, top managers must demonstrate their willingness to give energy and loyalty to the implementation process. This demonstrable commitment becomes, at the same time, a positive signal for all the affected organizational members (Rogers, Miller ; Judge, 2009). Aaltonen and Ikavalko (2012) recognize the role of middle managers, arguing they are the “key actors” “who have a pivotal role in strategic communication”. In addition to the above, another inhibitor to successful strategy implementation that has been receiving a considerable amount of attention is the impact of an organization’s existing management controls and particularly its budgeting systems (Mankins & Steele, 2015).

Mankins and Steele (2015) suggest that education and training policies depend on a firm’s management culture and forms of management-led organizational change. While such policies are affected by a firm’s market, production technologies and strategic goals, managers have the discretion to pursue varied strategies regarding three issues: entry-level education and training, employee development, and company-school relations. The author’s survey of 406 firms in 2011 indicated that there are two management characteristics; innovation commitment and resistance to change. Two forms of management-led organizational change; firm downsizing and work redesign, shape education and training strategies. He also finds that training; development and school relations are a focal point for redesigning management, while downsizing focuses on entry-level training.

Top management support has been consistently identified as the most important and crucial success factor in strategy implementation projects. Top management provides the necessary resources and authority or power for project success. Top management support in strategy implementation has two main facets that is providing leadership and providing the necessary resources. To implement strategic plans successfully, management should monitor the implementation progress and provide clear direction of the project. They must be willing to allow for a mindset change by accepting that a lot of learning has to be done at all levels, including themselves (Bhatti, 2011).

For the good of the employees and the organization, managers must learn to facilitate the introduction of changes into the workplace (Sheth, 2011). Al-Mashari et al (2010) assert that effective implementation of strategic plan requires establishing core competencies, among which is the use of change management strategies to promote the infusion of strategic plans in the workplace. Communication can be used as a major strategy in changing the attitude of the potential users. Top management can create more effective awareness for the strategic plan by communicating its benefits to the workers. In many cases, strategy implementation failed because of lack of communication (Al-Mashari et al., 2010). Successful strategy implementation requires top management support, because an implementation involves significant change to existing business processes as well as a significant amount of capital investment therefore gaining the required amount of support from senior management becomes paramount (Wong et al., 2007).

Support is needed throughout the implementation. The strategy must receive approval from top management (Bingi et al., 2009) and align with strategic business goals (Sumner, 2009). This can be achieved by tying management bonuses to project success (Wee, 2010). Top management needs to publicly and explicitly identify the strategy implementation as a top priority (Wee, 2010). Senior management must be committed with its own involvement and willingness to allocate valuable resources to the implementation effort (Holland et al., 2009). This involves providing the needed people for the implementation and giving appropriate amount of time to get the job done (Roberts et al., 2012). Managers should legitimize new goals and objectives. A shared vision of the organization and the role of the strategies should be communicated to employees. New organizational structures, roles and responsibilities should be established and approved. Policies should be set by top management to establish strategic plan in the company. In times of conflict, managers should mediate between parties (Roberts et al., 2012).

2.3.3 Stakeholders Involvement
Participation has become a very important tool for the facilitation of development efforts. Various development agencies, governments and Non-governmental organizations have employed participation in its planning and implementation of development interventions (Okumus, 2011). This has been because of the perceived benefits of participation which includes but not limited to improvement of participants’ capacities, skills and knowledge due to continues interactions and involvement in various development activities. Participation helps build strategic alliances and networks to support programme and projects implementation. Besides, participation helps improve decisions, development of better policies, plans and programs that are practicable to local people (Lorange, 2013).
Strategy implementation is not a top-down-approach. Consequently, the success of any implementation effort depends on the level of involvement of all stakeholders. To generate the required acceptance for the implementation as a whole, the affected stakeholders’ knowledge (which is often underestimated) must already be accounted for in the formulation of the strategy. Then, by making sure that these stakeholders are a part of the strategy process, their motivation towards the project will increase and they will see themselves as an important part in the process (Lynch ; Cross, 2015).
Unfortunately, in practice, managers and supervisors at lower hierarchy levels who do have important and fertile knowledge are seldom involved in strategy formulation. When they are, however, the probability for realizing a smooth targeted and accepted strategic planning process increases substantially. Research studies indicate that less than 5 percent of a typical workforce understands their organization’s strategy (Kiuna, 2007). This is a disturbing statistic as it is generally believed that, without understanding the general course of strategy, employees cannot effectively contribute to a strategic planning process. To involve employees is an important milestone to make strategy everyone’s everyday job. That is why the involvement of staff is essential to increase the general awareness of the strategy. Moreover, involvement of middle managers helps build consensus for implantation of strategic plans. A lack in strategic consensus can limit a company’s ability to concentrate its efforts on achieving a unified set of goals.

A study conducted by Gupta and Govindarajan (2008) on defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes indicates that from a theoretical point of view ergonomists and employees play an essential role in the improvement process and are involved in most stages of a change process. Top management and middle management are important in the first step to set goals that are consistent with the strategy of the enterprise. Middle management is also needed in the steps where improvements are selected. 
Grundy (2008) conducts a study on stakeholder perceptions and involvement in the implementation of EMS in ports in Vietnam and Cambodia. The study revealed that ports generally view other stakeholders as outsiders and exclude them from the process of designing environmental protection measures. Even though the stakeholders are strongly interested in contributing more to the process, there is no concrete plan for involving them in the management of the port. 
Aregbeshola, Adewale and Esther (2012) did a study on the relationship between stakeholders’ involvement in strategic planning and organization’s performance of the University of Venda. Using a survey approach, this study revealed that the process of strategic planning is absolutely dominated by the management cadre, thereby sending the other stakeholders into the doldrums. In the practical sense (as indicated by the findings), those who are directly affected by the strategic plan are least involved in the process of the planning. Because of the lack of involvement, the majority of the stakeholders became de-motivated, culminating in their lack-lustre approach toward the implementation of the orchestrated plan. The resultant lack of buy-in by the affected stakeholders – essentially the internal stakeholders (staff members and the student community) – lays credence to the paucity of the process and the resultant poor performance on a number of indicators.

2.3.4 Implementation of Strategic PlansStrategy implementation involves organization of the firm’s resources and motivation of the staff to achieve objectives. The environmental conditions facing many firms have changed rapidly. Strategy implementation is an enigma in many company’s today’s global competitive environment is complex, dynamic, and largely unpredictable and to deal with this unprecedented level of change, a lot of thinking has gone into strategy implementation. Strategic management is about managing the future, and effective strategy formulation is crucial and twice crucial is the implementation of such strategies, as it directs the attention and actions of an organization (Olson, Slater ; Hult, 2010).
Given an intensifying competitive environment, it is regularly asserted that the critical determinant in the success and, doubtlessly, the survival of the firm is the successful implementation of strategies (Chebat, 2009). The main functions of strategic management have been explained by Robbins and Coulter (2012) as identifying the organization’s current mission, objectives, and strategies, analysing the environment, identifying the opportunities and threats, analysing the organization’s resources, identifying the strengths and weaknesses, formulating and implementing strategies, and evaluating results.

Strategic decisions determine the organizational relations to its external environment, encompass the entire organization, depend on input from all of functional areas in the organization, have a direct influence on the administrative and operational activities, and are vitally important to long term health of an organization (Shirley, 2012). According to Schermerhorn (2009), strategies must be well formulated and implemented in order to attain organizational objectives. Schermerhorn (2009) determined that the strategy implementation process included the many components of management and had to be successfully acted upon to achieve the desired results. Here, the critical point is that effective and successful strategy implementation depends on the achievement of good “fits” between the strategies and their means of implementation. Robbins and Coulter (2012) have taken into consideration that no matter how effectively a company has planned its strategies, it could not succeed if the strategies were not implemented properly. Harrison (2012) also clarified that the more ineffective the top management decisions, the more ineffective are the choices made at lower levels of management.
2.4 Empirical Review
In his study of “aspects of formulation and implementation of strategic plans in Kenya”, Aosa (1992) surveyed 51 large private manufacturing firms through a survey. Using questionnaires and a drop and pick method, Aosa concluded that management was the key factors that influenced strategic plans formulation and implementation. The scholar also noted that an effective implementation process required a collective approach to culture and communication while keeping clear communication channels and realigning firm resources so that strategic plans are not halted by lack or inadequate implementation resources. Awino (2007) studied the effect of selected variables on corporate performance using 49 large private insurance firms in Kenya through a survey that applied both interviews and structured questionnaire. In his findings, management and culture were found to be very critical variables in the performance of firms. Awino (2007) concluded that both financial and non-financial performance were affected but to varying degrees by selected variables.

Cater and Pucko (2010) in his study on the activities for and obstacles to strategy execution on a sample of 172 Slovenian Companies, their findings were that managers mostly rely on planning and organizing activities when implementing strategies, while the biggest obstacle to strategy execution is poor leadership. Moreover, the results revealed that greater obstacles to strategy execution in the forms of inadequate management skills and employee’s reluctance to share their knowledge have a negative influence on performance. Mullins (2005) argues that most managerial problems have physical, psychological, social and economic aspects.
By bringing together a team with a variety of backgrounds, new and advanced approaches to old problems are often obtained. The scientific mind from each discipline attempts to extract the essence of the problem and relate it structurally to other similar problems. Taylor (1995) observed that in order to have all workers attaining the necessary understanding of the company vision and goals, provide commitment and actively get involved in translating the strategic plans into implementable activities with measurable results, strong and decisive leadership is needed to drive the course. Taylor contends that strategic leaders manage radical change to achieve dramatic improvements in organizational activities. Such leaders communicate internally and externally with an open management style, trying to build a new culture in which employees can feel involved. Thompson and Strickland (2007) add to this view by observing that strategic leadership keeps organizations innovative and responsive by taking special plans to foster, nourish and support people who are willing to champion new ideas, better services, new products and product applications.
In his study “Effect of selected variables on corporate performance,” Awino (2007) postulates that for a strategy to be effectively implemented, a committed leadership must champion it. He further argues that; any corporate agenda will be a successful initiative if the analysis and commitment have come from the corporate office headed by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and team members who have the holistic view of the firm and its environment. Accordingly, it is the CEO and the management team who will shape and have the ultimate responsibility for achieving the strategic ambition of the corporation. The CEO and management team members will need to spend much time to understand implications of the changes that are in their area of operation and the general environment, then develop agenda for effectively implementing the strategic plan to suit the new situation. The ownership and involvement of the top management extends beyond strategic planning stage and include actual implementation process by which the planned strategies are actualized. This enables the management team’s overall ability to work together for a common goal and also to tap into the individual entrepreneurship skills of these team managers.
According to Curtin (2009), the concept of strategic leadership involves encouraging employees to perform better by communicating the value of stretched targets providing a scope for individual and team contributions. Lufthans (2012) argues that a leader in any organization should provide resources to show commitment, share the vision, and involve people in the process of strategy implementation while listening to various possibilities. If the leader and employees share the same values and internalize these values, the bond between leader and employee will be strong in all situations leading to free communication that will enable transfer of knowledge. This clearly leads to the observation that an effective leader has to focus on organizational culture and influence every individual to singularly focus on the organization vision. In his study “An empirical investigation of aspects of strategic formulation and implementation with large private manufacturing firms in Kenya,”
Aosa (2012) observed that managerial involvement had little impact on strategy implementation among local companies but significant among foreign companies. Although strategic plan implementation is perceived to be associated with good firm performance, the organizational leadership could influence the attainment of anticipated results. Aosa (2002) noted that participating in the implementation of strategic plans varied with some companies exhibiting high participation while others had low participation as dictated upon by their leadership style. Leaders should focus their members in the same direction with CEOs being at the forefront to provide vision, initiative, motivation and inspiration (Ombina, Omoni ; Sipili, 2010).
Igecha (2014) did a study on determinants of strategy implementation at the institute of quantity surveyors of Kenya. The study was designed as a case study and primary data was obtained through interactive interviews of senior managers at the Institute of Quantity Surveyors of Kenya. The study established that strategy implementation at the Institute of Quantity Surveyors of Kenya is mainly influenced by commitment of the top management, communication process, coordination of activities and organizational culture.
Muchemi (2014) did a study on strategy implementation practices at the Kenya Post Office Savings Bank. To achieve these objectives interviews were conducted through use of interview guides, with interviewees being from key departments involved in strategy implementation. The responses were captured and analyzed through content analysis. The study established that strategy implementation at Kenya Post Office Savings Bank includes distribution of ample resources to strategy essential activities, creating and employing strategy supportive policies and programs for continuous improvement, continuous monitoring and evaluation of strategy and linking reward structure to achievement of results. The organization also adopts the push approach of operationalizing strategy of implementing pre-defined strategy with step by step activities getting closer to the organizational objectives. Institutionalization is achieved through proper training, creation of awareness and development of procedures that guide implementation ensuring that new strategy becomes business as usual.
Mativo (2011) conducted study on the challenges of strategy implementation at the Machakos branch of Equity bank, Kenya. A guided interview was used to guide the interviews conducted in person. Content analysis was used to derive information collected. The responses showed that most challenges faced by the bank were under control as the management took the necessary measures to combat them. The responses also revealed that strategic plans were documented and expectations well known by the interviewees. The challenges faced are stated in this research and the measures taken discussed. From this research, the bank’s strategies are in place and well executed. In conclusion, the study comes up with several challenges faced by the bank and these include economic challenges, high employee turnover, rapid bank growth, inadequate staff and some consumers not willing to embrace new technologies.
Polle (2012) conducted research on the Challenges of strategy implementation facing audit firms in Nairobi, Kenya. The study used descriptive design in its methodology and adopted a cross sectional survey approach where the units to be studied were audit firms in Nairobi. The population of the study was 619 audit firms. A sample of 60 audit firms was randomly selected, representing 10% of the target population. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics using means and frequencies. The study found that there are several challenges facing audit firms in the implementation of strategy, mostly due to insufficient financial resources and that the audit firms are not only technical efficient but have also embraced technology in their operations.

2.5 Critique of Existing Literature
The fatal problem with strategic plan implementation is the de facto success rate of intended strategies. In research studies, it is as low at 10% (Judson, 2011). Despite this abysmal record, strategy implementation does not seem to be a popular topic at all. In fact, some managers mistake implementation as a strategic afterthought and a pure top-down-approach. Instead, management spends most of its attention on strategy formulation. Research emphasizing strategy implementation is classified by Bourgeois and Brodwin (2014) as part of a first wave of studies proposing structural views as important facilitators for strategy implementation success. Beyond the preoccupation of many authors with firm structure, a second wave of investigations advocated interpersonal processes and issues as crucial to any marketing strategy implementation effort (Noble & Mokwa, 2009). Conflicting empirical results founded upon contrasting theoretical premises indicate that strategic plan implementation is a complex phenomenon. In response, generalizations have been advanced in the form of encouraging: early involvement in the strategy process by firm members (Hambrick & Cannella, 2009); fluid processes for adaptation and adjustment (Drazin & Howard, 2014); and, leadership style and structure (Bourgeois & Brodwin, 2014).

Wessel (2013) stated that there were mostly individual barriers to strategy implementation such as too many and conflicting priorities, insufficient top team functions, a top down management style, inter-functional conflicts, poor vertical communication, and inadequate management development. Eisenstat (2013) pointed out that most companies trying to develop new organization capacities failed to get over these organizational hurdles: competence, co-ordination, and commitment. Sandelands (2014) indicated that there were difficulties to conjecture the commitment, time, emotion, and energy needed to translate plans into action. McGrath et al. (2014) explained that the political turbulence might be the most important issue facing any implementation process. Lingle and Schieman (2014) stated that market, people, finance, operation, adaptability, and environmental factors play a vital role to long-term successful strategy implementation.

Christensen and Donovan (2008) mentioned that intended strategies would be implemented as they have been envisioned if three conditions were met. First, those in the organization must understand each important detail in management’s intended strategy. Second, if the organization is to take collective action, the strategy needs to make as much sense to each of the members in the organization as they view the world from their own context, as it does to top management. Finally, the collective intentions must be realized with little unanticipated influence from outside political, technological, or market forces. Systems refer to the formal and informal procedures used to manage the organization, including management control systems, performance measurement and reward systems, planning, budgeting and resource allocation systems, and management information systems. Staffs refer to the people, their backgrounds and competencies; how the organization recruits, selects, trains, socializes, manages the careers, and promotes employees. Skills refer to the distinctive competencies of the organization; what it does best along dimensions such as people, management practices, processes, systems, technology, and customer relationships (Kaplan, 2010).
2.6 Research Gap
Strategic plan implementation is an enigma in many organizations. The problem is illustrated by the unsatisfying low success rate (only 10% to 30%) of intended strategies (Raps and Kauffman, 2010). The primary objectives are somehow dissipated as the strategy moves into implementation and the initial momentum is lost before the expected benefits are realized. Successful implementation is a challenge that demands patience, stamina and energy from the involved managers. The key to success is an integrative view of the implementation process (Raps and Kauffman, 2010). The literature suggests that successful strategy implementation is difficult to achieve for six key reasons (Pateman, 2008). These includes persistent pressure from stakeholders for greater profitability, increased complexity of organizations, difficult challenge faced by executives, low levels of participation of a large number of managers across all functions at an early stage of executing strategy, difficulty of securing the required resources to execute the strategy and executives know more about strategy formulation than strategic implementation (Hrebiniak, 2008). To the research knowledge there is limited empirical evidence on handling resource allocation challenges in implementation of strategic plans in the public sector, which is the gap that this study sought to fill.

2.7 Summary
In summary, this chapter managed to present the theories as well as past studies on related to mitigating resource allocation on implementation of strategic plans in the public sector. In summary, the main areas that were presented include; the theoretical review, literature review on the effects of mitigating resource allocation on implementation of strategic plans, the conceptual framework, empirical review, the critique of the existing literature and the literature gaps. In summary, from the proposed theories, it can be noted that financial resource, funding, external/ internal support and stakeholder involvement influence strategic plan implementation. Mitigation of resource allocation challenge influence implementation of strategic plans.

CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 IntroductionThis chapter sets out various stages and phases that was followed in the collection, measurement and analysis of data. Specifically, the following subsections were included; research design, target population, data collection instruments, data collection procedures and the data analysis.

3.2 Research DesignCreswell (2003) defines a research design as the scheme, outline or plan that is used to generate answers to research problems. Dooley (2007) notes that a research design is the structure of the research, that holds all the elements in a research project together. A case study research design was adopted. According to Kothari, (2006) a case study design is a way of organizing data and looking at the object to be studied as a whole, a case study makes a detailed examination of a single subject or a group of phenomena.
Case approach helps to narrow down a very broad field or population into an easily researchable one, and seeks to describe a unit in details, in context and holistically, (Kombo ; Tromp, 2006). The study hence considered case study design suitable since data was gathered from from a single source; National Industrial Training Authority and used to represent, handling resource allocation challenges in implementation of strategic plans in the public sector. The methods of data collection were tested for validity and reliability, conditions which According to Kothari (2006) must be present in descriptive studies.

3.3 PopulationAccording to Ngechu (2004) target population is a well-defined or specified set of people, group of things, households, firms, services, elements or events which are being investigated. Target population should suit a certain specification, which the research is studying and the population should be homogenous. The target populations for this study were employees of National Industrial Training Authority. Keya (1989) states that individuals or things or elements that fit a research specification. The population can be divided into sets, population or strata and which are mutually exclusive.

Mugenda and Mugenda, (2003), explain that the target population should have some observable characteristics, to which the research intends to generalize the results of the study. For purpose of this study the target population was stratified into top management level, middle level managers and low level management. The study population for this study was the employees of National Industrial Training Authority at their head office in Nairobi. The study population composed of 156 members of staff in different managerial levels currently working at National Industrial Training Authority Head office.
Table 3. SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Target Population
Level Number of Employee Percentage
Top Management 12 7.7
Middle Level Management 58 37.2
Low Level Management 86 55.1
Total 156 100
Source: NITA, (2016)
3.4 Sampling FrameA sampling frame is a comprehensive list of all sampling units, which a sample can be selected, (Kombo ; Tromp, 2006). Sampling frame was the list of 156 employees working in all departments and sections at National Industrial Training Authority head office in Nairobi and its regional offices.

3.5 Sample and Sampling TechniqueNgechu (2004) emphasizes the importance of selecting a representative sample by use of a sampling frame. From the sampling frame, the required number of subjects, respondents, elements or firms was selected in order to make a sample. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. According to Deming (1990) stratified random sampling technique produce estimates of overall population parameters with greater precision and ensures a more representative sample is derived from a relatively homogeneous population.
Stratification aimed to reduce standard error by providing some control over variance. From each stratum the study used simple random sampling to select 47 respondents; this was 30% of the entire population. According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2008), a representative sample is one that represents at least 30% of the population of interest. Random sampling frequently minimizes the sampling error in the population. This in turn increases the precision of any estimation methods used (Cooper ; Schindler, 2003).

Table 3. SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Sample Size
Level No. of Employees Proportion Sample size
Top Management 12 30% 4
Middle Level Management 58 30% 17
Low Level Management 86 30% 26
Total 156 30% 47
3.6 Data Collection Instruments
The choice of a tool and instrument depends mainly on the attributes of the subjects, research topic, problem question, objectives, design, expected data and results (Ngechu, 2004). This is because each tool and instrument collects specific data. Donald (2006) notes that there are two major sources of data used by respondents’ primary and secondary data. Primary data is information gathered directly from respondents. The research used questionnaires. The questionnaire was used to collect mainly quantitative data. However, some qualitative data was collected from the open-ended questions.
3.7 Data Collection Procedure
The research administered a questionnaire to each member of the target population. The questionnaire was designed and tested with a few members of the population for further improvements. This was done in order to enhance its validity and accuracy of data to be collected. Secondary data was collected to generate additional information for the study from the documented data or available reports. Secondary data is for evaluating historical or contemporary confidential or public records, reports, government documents and opinions (Cooper & Schindler, 2003). Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) add that, numerical records can also be considered as a sub category of documents and those records include figures, reports and budgets. This basically implied the incorporation of valuable statistical data in the study.

3.8 Pilot Test Study
The research carried out a pilot study to pretest and validates the questionnaire. According to Cooper and Schindler (2003), the pilot group can range from 25 to 100 subjects depending on the method to be tested but it does not need to be statistically selected. This was in line with a qualitative research design methodology employed in this research.

3.8.1 Validity
According to Somekh and Cathy (2005) validity is the degree by which the sample of test items represents the content the test is designed to measure. Content validity which was employed by this research was a measure of the degree to which data collected using a particular instrument represents a specific domain or content of a particular concept. Mugenda and Mugenda (2008) contend that the usual procedure in assessing the content validity of a measure is to use a professional or expert in a particular field. To establish the validity of the research instruments the research sought opinions of experts in the field of study especially the lecturers in the School of Human Resource Development. This facilitated the necessary revision and modification of the research instrument thereby enhancing validity and reliability. Reliability refers to the consistency of measurement and is frequently assessed using the test–retest reliability method (Walliman, 2001).
3.8.2 Reliability
Reliability is increased by including many similar items on a measure, by testing a diverse sample of individuals and by using uniform testing procedures. The research selected a pilot group of 10 individuals from the target population to test the reliability of the research instrument. This was achieved by first stratifying the individuals according to their level of management. The research was also put in consideration gender equity and geographical background of individuals. The pilot data was not included in the actual study. The pilot study allowed for pre-testing of the research instrument. The clarity of the instrument to the respondents was established so as to enhance the instrument’s validity and reliability. The pilot study enabled the researcher familiarize with the study area and its administration procedure as well as identifying items that require modification. The result helped the research to correct inconsistencies that may arise from the instruments to that they capture what is intended.
3.9 Data Processing and Analysis The study used the Likert type scale as the rating scale in the questionnaire. According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), Likert scales are often used with matrix questions. The items that are used in Likert scales are usually declarative in form. Kumar (2005) claims that Likert scales are the easiest to construct and are based upon the assumption that each statement/item on the scale has equal attitudinal value, importance or weight in terms of reflecting an attitude towards the issue in question. The numbers in a Likert scale are ordered such that they indicate the presence or absence of a characteristic being measured, Likert questions are easier to analyse since they are in the immediate usable form, (Orotho ; Kombo, 2002). Data collected was quantitative in nature and was analysed by descriptive analysis such as mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentages using tools such as Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis, where the opinion of the respondent was presented in prose form. Multiple regression analysis is a statistical method utilized to determine the relationship between one dependent variable and one or more independent variables (Hair et al., 2010). This study employed a multiple linear regression analysis. The multiple regression equation was
Y = ?0 + ?1X1 + ?2X2 + ?3X3 +?
Whereby Y = Strategic Plan Implementation, X1= Financial Resource, X2= Support and X3= Stakeholder Involvement while ?1, ?2, ?3 and ?4 are coefficients of determination and ? is the error term.
CHAPTER FOURDATA FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION4.1 IntroductionThis chapter describes the data findings, analysis and discussions of the informaation collected from the field. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The chapter is organized as follows: response rate, reliabiliy and validity analysis, back ground information, descriptive analysis, inferential statistics and discussion of the study findings.
4.2 Response RateData was collected from top level management, middle level management and low level management of National Industrial Training Authority. Questionnaires issued were 47 from which 45 were filled and returned which represents a response rate of 95.7%. The response rate was considered satisfactory because Mugenda and Mugenda (2008) asserted that a response rate of 50% is adequate for analysis. Babbie, (2004) also asserted that the return of rates of 50% are acceptable to analyze and publish, 60% is good and 70% is very good.7 Therefore, the response rate for the study is very good. The response rate is as represented in Table 4.3.

Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: Response RateQuestionnaire Frequency Percentage
Returned 45 95.7%
Not Returned 2 4.3%
Total 47 100%
4.3 Reliability TestThis was done by selecting a group of 10 individuals from the target population to test the reliability of the research instrument. Cronbach’s Alpha was used to measure the internal consistency. The Alpha value is 0.7. The Cronbach’s Alpha was established for each of the objectives of the study as shown in table 4.4. The results show that all the variables are reliable for the study because they are greater than the Cronbach’s Alpha (? = 0.7).

Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 4: Reliability AnalysisScale Cronbach’s Alpha Number of Items
Financial Resources 0.811 6
Support 0.798 5
Stakeholder’s Involvement 0.802 5
4.4 Demographic Information4.4.1 Age of Respondents
The respondents were asked to indicate their age. The resuts wereas represented in Figure 4.2.

From the findings,33.3.% of the respondnets were below 30 years, 28.9% were aged between 31-40 years, 22.2% were aged between 41-50 years, and 15.6% were above 50 years. This implies that the age of the respondnets is well distributed fo the purpose of the study.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Age of Respondents4.4.2 Period worked in the organization
The respondents were asked to indicate the period they had worked in the organization. The results are as shown in Figure 4.3.

From the findings, 24.4% of the respondents indicated that they had worked in the organization for a period between 2to 3 years, 22.2% had worked in the organization for a period between 1 to 2 years and 3 to 4 years, 20.1% had worked in the organization for over 4 years and 11.1% had worked in the organization for less than one year. This implies that the respondents have been in the organization for some period of time and they will be able to answer the questions.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Period worked in the organization4.4.3 Level of Education
The respondnets were asked to indicate their highest level of education. The results were as shown in Figure 4.4.

According to the findings, 46.7% of the respondents had undergraduate studies, 31.1% had tertiary education and 22.2% had post graduate studies. This shows that the respondnets were well educated.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Level of education of the respondents4.4.3 Management Level
The respondnets were asked to indicate their level of management. The results were as presented in Figure 4.5.

From the findings,42.2% of the respondnets are in low level management, 33.3% of the respondnets are in the top level management and 24.4% of the respondents are in midle level management. This shows that the respondnets are well distributed in all the levels of managemnt.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Management level of the respondents4.5 Descriptive Statistics4.5.1 Financial Resources and Implementation of Strategic Plans
The respondents were requested to indicate their level of agreement with the statements relating to the effect of financial resource on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority. Using the scales, 1- Strongly Disagree, 2 Disagree, 3 – Neither disagree nor agree, 4 – Agree, 5 – Strongly Agree. The findings are as shown in Table 4.5.

According to the results, the respondents agreed that sufficient resources is a crucial factor in strategy implementation in the organization as shown by a mean of 4.33, finances are properly controlled as shown by a mean of 4.29, there is a regular and adequate supply of funds in the organization as shown by a mean of 4.27, lack of funds impedes strategy implementation as shown by a mean of 4.24, funding is required by all department and at all levels of the organization as shown by a mean of 4.04 and allocation of resources are done in a transparent manner as shown by a mean of 3.91. These findings are in agreement with the findings of Rajin, (2011) who established that all resources of organization are indispensable, but financial resources have their own importance as funding is required by all department and at all levels of organization.

The financial management is generally concerned with procurement, allocation and control of financial resources of a concern. The objectives can be either of the four; to ensure regular and adequate supply of funds to the concern, to ensure adequate returns to the shareholders which will depend upon the earning capacity, market price of the share, expectations of the shareholders, to ensure optimum funds utilization (David, 2009). Once the funds are procured, they should be utilized in maximum possible way at least cost and to ensure safety on investment, i.e., funds should be invested in safe ventures so that adequate rate of return can be achieved. Any activity whether economic or non-economic, requires money to run it (Tulsian, 2002). Estimation of capital requirements: A finance manager has to make estimation with regards to capital requirements of the company. This will depend upon expected costs and profits and future programmes and policies of a concern. Estimations have to be made in an adequate manner which increases earning capacity of enterprise. Determination of capital composition: Once the estimation has been made, the capital structure has to be decided. This involves short- term and long- term debt equity analysis. This will depend upon the proportion of equity capital a company is possessing and additional funds that have to be raised from outside parties (Noble & Mokwa, 2009).

Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 5: Effect of Financial Resource on Implementation of Strategic Plans1 2 3 4 5 Mean Stdv.

Funding is required by all department and at all levels of the organization 3 3 4 14 21 4.04 0.98
There is a regular and adequate supply of funds in the organization 1 2 4 15 23 4.27 1.09
Sufficient resources are a crucial factor in strategy implementation in the organization 0 2 3 18 22 4.33 1.10
Finances are properly controlled 1 1 3 19 21 4.29 1.08
Lack of funds impedes strategy implementation 1 2 4 16 22 4.24 1.06
Allocation of resources are done in a transparent manner 2 4 4 21 14 3.91 0.86
4.5.2 Support and Implementation Of Strategic Plans
The respondents were requested to indicate their level of agreement with the statements relating to the effect of support on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority, using the scale, 1- Strongly Disagree, 2 Disagree, 3 – Neither disagree or agree, 4 – Agree, 5 – Strongly Agree. The results were as presented in table 4.6.

From the findings , the respondents agreed that top level management is committed to the strategic direction as shown by a mean of 4.24, the management create more effective awareness for the strategic plan by communicating its benefits to the workers as shown by a mean of 4.22, the top management provides the necessary resources and authority or power for strategic plan success as shown by a mean of 4.09, the management monitors the implementation progress and provide clear direction of the strategic plan as shown by a mean of 4.07 and that they demonstrate their willingness to give energy and loyalty to the implementation process as shown by a mean of 4.04. These findings concur with the findings of Al-Mashari et al (2010) who asserts that effective implementation of strategic plan requires establishing core competencies, among which is the use of change management strategies to promote the infusion of strategic plans in the workplace.

Top management support has been consistently identified as the most important and crucial success factor in strategy implementation projects. Top management provides the necessary resources and authority or power for project success. Top management support in strategy implementation has two main facets that is providing leadership and providing the necessary resources. To implement strategic plans successfully, management should monitor the implementation progress and provide clear direction of the project. They must be willing to allow for a mindset change by accepting that a lot of learning has to be done at all levels, including themselves (Bhatti, 2011). Successful strategy implementation requires top management support, because an implementation involves significant change to existing business processes as well as a significant amount of capital investment therefore gaining the required amount of support from senior management becomes paramount (Wong et al., 2007).

Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 6: Effect of support on implementation of strategic plans1 2 3 4 5 Mean STDV.

Top level management is committed to the strategic direction 0 1 5 21 18 4.24 1.00
I demonstrate my willingness to give energy and loyalty to the implementation process 1 1 7 22 14 4.04 0.89
The Top management provides the necessary resources and authority or power for strategic plan success 2 4 1 19 19 4.09 1.00
The management monitors the implementation progress and provide clear direction of the strategic plan 2 3 5 15 20 4.07 0.94
The management create more effective awareness for the strategic plan by communicating its benefits to the workers. 1 1 3 22 18 4.22 1.04
4.5.3 Stakeholders’ Involvement and Implementation Of Strategic Plans
The respondents were requested to indicate their level of agreement with the statements relating to the effect of stakeholders’ involvement on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority, using the scales where 1- Strongly Disagree, 2 Disagree, 3 – Neither disagree or agree, 4 – Agree, 5 – Strongly Agree. The results are as shown in table 4.7.

According to the findings, the respondents agreed that; the success of any implementation effort depends on the level of involvement of all stakeholders as shown by a mean of 4.31, the success of any implementation effort depends on the level of involvement of all stakeholders as shown by a mean of 4.22, involvement of managers helps build consensus for implementation of strategic plans as shown by a mean of 4.18, stakeholders’ involvement helps build strategic alliances and networks to support strategic plan implementation as shown by a mean of 4.07 and the organization involve employees in the strategic planning and implementation as shown by a mean of 3.89. These findings are in agreement with the findings of Gupta ; Govindarajan (2008) who asserted that stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes indicates that from a theoretical point of view ergonomists and employees plays an essential role in the improvement process and are involved in most stages of a change process.

Grundy (2008) conducts a study on stakeholder perceptions and involvement in the implementation of EMS in ports in Vietnam and Cambodia. The study revealed that ports generally view other stakeholders as outsiders and exclude them from the process of designing environmental protection measures. Even though the stakeholders are strongly interested in contributing more to the process, there is no concrete plan for involving them in the management of the port. Aregbeshola, Adewale and Esther (2012) did a study on the relationship between stakeholders’ involvement in strategic planning and organization’s performance of the University of Venda. Using a survey approach, this study revealed that the process of strategic planning is absolutely dominated by the management cadre, thereby sending the other stakeholders into the doldrums. In the practical sense (as indicated by the findings), those who are directly affected by the strategic plan are least involved in the process of the planning. Because of the lack of involvement, the majority of the stakeholders became de-motivated, culminating in their lack-lustre approach toward the implementation of the orchestrated plan. The resultant lack of buy-in by the affected stakeholders – essentially the internal stakeholders (staff members and the student community) – lays credence to the paucity of the process and the resultant poor performance on a number of indicators
Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 7: Effect of stakeholders’ involvement on implementation1 2 3 4 5 Mean STDV.

Stakeholders’ involvement helps build strategic alliances and networks to support strategic plan implementation 1 3 3 23 15 4.07 0.96
The success of any implementation effort depends on the level of involvement of all stakeholders 0 2 4 21 18 4.22 1.00
The success of any implementation effort depends on the level of involvement of all stakeholders 1 1 1 22 20 4.31 1.12
The organization involve employees in the strategic planning and implementation 3 4 6 14 18 3.89 0.82
Involvement of managers helps build consensus for implementation of strategic plans 2 1 5 16 21 4.18 1.01
4.5.4 Strategic Plan Implementation
The respondents were asked to indicate if their organizations had strategic plans. The results were as shown in Figure 4.6.

From the findings, 88.9% of the respondents indicated that they had strategic plans and 11.1% indicated that they had no strategic plans.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Organization strategic plansThe respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which their organizations implemented the strategic plans. The results were as shown in figure 4.7
From the finding’s, 46.7% of respondents indicated that their organizations implemented the strategic plans to a very great extent, 42.2% indicated that their organizations implemented the strategic plans to a great extent, 6.7% to a moderate extent and 4.4.% to a little extent. This implies that most organizations implement strategic plans.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7: Organization implementation of strategic plans
The respondents were requested to indicate their level of agreement with the statements on strategic plan implementation: Using a scale of agreement levels as: 1- Strongly Disagree, 2 – Disagree, 3 – Neutral, 4 – Agree and 5 – Strongly Agree.

According to the findings the respondents agreed that; The support on implementation affects the implementation of the strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority as shown by a mean of 4.31, The resources available influence the implementation of strategic plans in the organization as shown by a mean of 4.11, The stakeholders’ involvement in the organization affects the implementation of strategic plans in the organization as shown by a mean of 4.00, The strategic plans of the organization include many components of management that have to be successfully acted upon to achieve the desired results as shown by a mean of 3.93 and Financial resource available for running the implementation process affect implementation of the organization’s strategic plans as shown by a mean of 3.93. These findings concur with the findings of Olson, Slater & Hult, (2010) who found out that Strategic management is about managing the future, and effective strategy formulation is crucial and twice crucial is the implementation of such strategies, as it directs the attention and actions of an organization.
According to Schermerhorn (2009), strategies must be well formulated and implemented in order to attain organizational objectives. Schermerhorn (2009) determined that the strategy implementation process included the many components of management and had to be successfully acted upon to achieve the desired results. Here, the critical point is that effective and successful strategy implementation depends on the achievement of good “fits” between the strategies and their means of implementation. Robbins and Coulter (2012) have taken into consideration that no matter how effectively a company has planned its strategies, it could not succeed if the strategies were not implemented properly. Harrison (2012) also clarified that the more ineffective the top management decisions, the more ineffective are the choices made at lower levels of management. The main functions of strategic management have been explained by Robbins and Coulter (2012) as identifying the organization’s current mission, objectives, and strategies, analysing the environment, identifying the opportunities and threats, analysing the organization’s resources, identifying the strengths and weaknesses, formulating and implementing strategies, and evaluating results.

Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 8: Strategic plan implementationStrategic plan implementation 1 2 3 4 5 Mean Stdv.

The strategic plans of the organization include many components of management that have to be successfully acted upon to achieve the desired results 3 3 4 19 16 3.93 0.87
The resources available influence the implementation of strategic plans in the organization 2 2 4 18 19 4.11 0.96
Financial resource available for running the implementation process affect implementation of the organization’s strategic plans 0 4 6 19 15 3.93 0.83
The support on implementation affects the implementation of the strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority 1 2 3 15 24 4.31 1.14
The stakeholders’ involvement in the organization affects the implementation of strategic plans in the organization 3 4 2 17 19 4.00 0.95
4.6 Inferential StatisticsThe inferential statistics was conducted to establish the relationship between the independent and depend variables.

4.6.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analysis was conducted to determine the strength of the relationship between financial resources and implementation of strategic plans, support and implementation of strategic plans and stakeholder’s involvement and implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority. Pearson’s correlation was used measure the relationship. The findings were as shown in Table 4.9.

The results depicted that there is a significant positive relationship between financial resources and strategic plan implementation (r = 0.831, p value = 0.003), this implies that an increase in financial resources will lead to increase in strategic plan implementation. There is a significant positive relationship between support and strategic plan implementation (r = 0.712, p = 0.002), this shows that an increase in support will lead to an increase of strategic plan implementation and there is a significant positive relationship between stakeholder’s involvement and strategic plan implementation (r = 0.612, p = 0.001), this indicates that an increase in stakeholder’s involvement will lead to an increase in strategic plan implementation.

Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 9: Correlation Coefficient
Strategic plan implementation Financial resources support Stakeholder’s involvement
Financial resources Pearson Correlation .831** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .003 .012 N 45 45 support Pearson Correlation .712** .864** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .002 .004 0.04 N 45 45 45 Stakeholder’s involvement Pearson Correlation .612** .604** .390** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .001 .001 .004 N 45 45 45 45
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

4.6.2 Model Summary
The model summary describes the variation of dependent variable due to the changes in independent variables. In this case, the model measures the variation of strategic plan implementation due to changes in financial resources, support and stakeholder’s involvement. According to findings in table 4.8, the value of R squared is 0.574; this shows that there was 57.4% variation of strategic plan implementation due to changes in financial resources, support and stakeholder’s involvement at 0.05 significance level.

Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 10: Model SummaryModel R R Square Adjusted R Squared Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .764 .584 .574 .00899
4.6.3 Analysis Of Variance
The F statistics (ANOVA) was used to measure the model goodness of fit. The F calculated is greater than the F critical (12.428> 2.832), this implies that financial resources, support, stakeholder’s involvement significantly influence strategic plan implementation. The significance value was 0.01 this shows that the model is statistically significant. This is an indication that model has goodness of fit.

Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 11: Analysis of Variance
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Residual 156.963 3 52.321 12.428 .001
Regression 172.61 41 4.21 Total 329.573 44 4.6.4 Regression Coefficient
The regression coefficient was used to explain the nature of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The established regression equation was
Y = 0.567 + 0.413 X1 + 0.627X2 + 0.454X3
From the above regression equation, it was revealed that holding financail resource , support and stakeholder involvement to a constant zero, strategic plan implementation would stand at 0.567.
From the findings in table 4.12, financial resources had a significant coefficient of (? = 0.413, p = 0.000), this shows that financial resources had a positive significant effect on strategic plan implementation, therefore a unit increase in financial resources will lead to an increase strategic plan implementation.

Support had a significant coefficient of (? = 0.627, P = 0.008), this implies that support had a positive significant effect on strategic plan implementation; therefore, a unit increase in support will lead to an increase in strategic plan implementation. Stakeholder’s involvement had a significant coefficient of (? = 0.454, P = 0.003) this shows that stakeholder’s involvement had a positive significant effect on strategic plan implementation. Therefore, a unit increase in stakeholder’s involvement will lead to an increase in strategic plan implementation.

Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 12: CoefficientsModel Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 Constant 0.567 0.099 5.727 0.000
Financial Resources 0.413 0.054 0.369 7.648 0.000
Support 0.627 0.189 0.543 3.317 0.008
Stakeholder’s Involvement 0.454 0.111 0.374 4.090 0.003
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 IntroductionThis chapter discusses the data findings, conclusion drawn from the findings and recommendation made and areas for further research. The discussions aimed at determining the effect of financial resource on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority, the effect of support on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority and the effect of stakeholders’ involvement on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority.

5.2 Summary of Findings5.2.1 Financial resource and implementation of strategic plans
The first objective of the study was to determine the effect of financial resource on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority. The study revealed that that sufficient resources are a crucial factor in strategy implementation in the organization, finances are properly controlled in the organization, there is a regular and adequate supply of funds in the organization, lack of funds impedes strategy implementation, funding is required by all department and at all levels of the organization and allocation of resources are done in a transparent manner.

5.2.2 Support and implementation of strategic plans
The second objective of the study was to determine the effect of support on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority. The study found out that top level management is committed to the strategic direction, the management create more effective awareness for the strategic plan by communicating its benefits to the workers, the top management provides the necessary resources and authority or power for strategic plan success, the management monitors the implementation progress and provide clear direction of the strategic plan and that the employees demonstrate their willingness to give energy and loyalty to the implementation process.

5.2.3 Stakeholders’ involvement on implementation of strategic plans
The third objective of the study was to determine effect of stakeholders’ involvement on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority. The study established that the success of any implementation effort depends on the level of involvement of all stakeholders, the success of any implementation effort depends on the level of involvement of all stakeholders, involvement of managers helps build consensus for implementation of strategic plans, stakeholders’ involvement helps build strategic alliances and networks to support strategic plan implementation and the organization involve employees in the strategic planning and implementation.

5.3 Conclusions
The study found out that there was a positive correlation between financial resources and implementation of strategic plans. This shows that there is a relationship between financial resources and implementation of strategic plans and a unit increase in financial resources will lead to increase in implementation of strategic plans. The study therefore concludes that financial resources are positively related to implementation of strategic plans.

The study found out that there was a positive correlation between support and implementation of strategic plans. This implies that there was a relationship between support and implementation of strategic plans, and that a unit increase in support will lead to increase implementation of strategic plans. The study therefore concludes that support is positively related to implementation of strategic plans.

The study found out that there was a positive correlation between stakeholder’s involvement and implementation of strategic plans. This shows that stakeholder’s involvement was related to implementation of strategic plans, therefore, a unit increase in stakeholder’s involvement will lead to increase in implementation strategic plans. The study therefore concludes that stakeholder’s involvement is positively related to implementation of strategic plans.

5.4 RecommendationsThe study recommends that the managers should introduce financial resources in their strategic plans as this will promote faster implementation. The financial resources can be outsourced from different financial institutions which offer the best terms of lending finances. The organization should ensure that it settles it obligations on borrowed finances; this will show that the organization is operating in the right way and it’s able to meet its obligations when they fall due.
The management should support the implementation of strategic plans, failure to which it will lead to organization failure because the other employees will think it is not much important. The management should work hand in hand with the other employees in implementation process, this will ensure that work is done well and corrections are made at the right time so that they don’t affect the final results.
The study recommends that stakeholders should be part of the implementation process; this will motivate other employees to implement the plan. The stakeholders are the greatest shareholder’s in the organization therefore their consent and involvement is very important. Thy will be able to know how activities are done in the organization and comment on them. The stakeholder’s will also be able to understand the challenges faced during the implementation process and therefore support the management in coming up with solutions.

5.5 Areas for Further StudiesThe study sought to establish the influence of resources on implementation of strategic plans in the public sector in Kenya, with reference to National Industrial Training Authority.

There was 57.4% variation of strategic plan implementation due to changes of the study variables (financial resources, support and stakeholder’s involvement). The study recommends that a study should be done on the influence of resources on implementation of strategic plans in the public sector in Kenya to cover the remaining 42.6%.

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APPENDICES
Appendix I: Questionnaire
Section A: Demographic Information
What is your age bracket?
Below 30 years ( )
31- 40 years ( )
41- 50 years ( )
Above 50 years ( )
How long have been in this organization?
Less than 1 year ( )
1-2 years ( )
2-3 years 3-4 years ( )
Over 4 years ( )
What is your highest level of education? (Please tick one)
Tertiary College ( )
Undergraduate ( )
Postgraduate ( )
Other (specify) ………………………………
What is your management level?
Top level management ( )
Middle level management ( )
Low level management ( )
Section B: Financial Resources and Implementation of Strategic Plans
To what extent do you agree with the following statement relating to the effect of financial resource on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority? (Where 1- Strongly Disagree, 2 Disagree, 3 – Neither disagree or agree, 4 – Agree, 5 – Strongly Agree)
1 2 3 4 5
Funding is required by all department and at all levels of the organization There is a regular and adequate supply of funds in the organization Sufficient resources are a crucial factor in strategy implementation in the organization Finances are properly controlled Lack of funds impedes strategy implementation Allocation of resources are done in a transparent manner How else does financial resource affect implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Suggest possible ways of improving financial resources in the organization …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Section C: Support and Implementation of Strategic Plans
To what extent do you agree with the following statement relating to the effect of support on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority? (Where 1- Strongly Disagree, 2 Disagree, 3 – Neither disagree or agree, 4 – Agree, 5 – Strongly Agree)
1 2 3 4 5
Top level management is commitment to the strategic direction I demonstrate my willingness to give energy and loyalty to the implementation process The Top management provides the necessary resources and authority or power for strategic plan success The management monitors the implementation progress and provide clear direction of the strategic plan The management create more effective awareness for the strategic plan by communicating its benefits to the workers. How else does support affect implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
What does you think should be done support at National Industrial Training Authority in order improve strategic plan implementation?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Section D: Stakeholders’ Involvement and Implementation Of Strategic Plans
To what extent do you agree with the following statement relating to the effect of stakeholders’ involvement on implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority? (Where 1- Strongly Disagree, 2 Disagree, 3 – Neither disagree or agree, 4 – Agree, 5 – Strongly Agree)
1 2 3 4 5
Stakeholders’ involvement helps build strategic alliances and networks to support strategic plan implementation Stakeholders’ participation helps improve decisions and development of better plans The success of any implementation effort depends on the level of involvement of all stakeholders The organization involve employees in the strategic planning and implementation Involvement of managers helps build consensus for implantation of strategic plans How else does stakeholders’ involvement affect implementation of strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

What do you think should be done on stakeholders’ involvement at National Industrial Training Authority in order improve strategic plan implementation?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Section E: Strategic Plan Implementation
Does your organization have strategic plans?
Yes
No
To what extent has your organization implemented the strategic plans?
Very great extent
Great extent
Moderate extent
Little extent
Not at all
How do you agree with the following statements on strategic plan implementation: Using a scale of agreement levels as:1- Strongly Disagree, 2 – Disagree, 3 – Neutral, 4 – Agree and 5 – Strongly Agree)
Strategic plan implementation 1 2 3 4 5
The strategic plans of the organization include many components of management that have to be successfully acted upon to achieve the desired results The resources available influence the implementation of strategic plans in the organization Financial resource available for running the implementation process affect implementation of the organization’s strategic plans The support on implementation affects the implementation of the strategic plans in National Industrial Training Authority The stakeholders’ involvement in the organization affects the implementation of strategic plans in the organization Thank you