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Gastrointestinal Tract

February 23, 2019 0 Comment

Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility
The stomachs function is to prepare food for digestion as well as the absorption by the intestine. The production of gastric acid is a unique and essential component of the contribution of the stomach to the process of digestion. Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of food components like protein and the absorption of calcium, iron, and vitamin B12. It lowers the pH, which helps to kill ingested micro-organism and reduces the growth of bacteria in the stomach. In this paper, the pathophysiology of a section of gastric acid will be discussed. Additionally, the paper examines how various diseases that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) system may interfere with the secretion of gastric acid. A mind map of gastritis disorder is also presented.
The Normal Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production
Food presence in the stomach stimulates the secretion of gastric acid to facilitate digestion. The secretion of gastric acid occurs in phases, the first phase known as the cephalic phase where the secretion of gastric acid is stimulated by conditioned reflexes such as smell, and the sight of food. This phase occurs because of the activities of the vagus. The vagus nerve in the stomach carries out parasympathetic action potential. A postganglionic neuron in the stomach’s enteric plexus is stimulated by the preganglionic parasympathetic vagus nerve fibers. Postganglionic neuron stimulates the secretion by the chief and the parietal cells and stimulates the section of gastrin by endocrine cells (Hammer ; McPhee, 2014). The second phase of gastric acid secretion is the gastric phase where maximal secretion of gastric juice takes place. The secretion of gastric acid in this phase is caused by the arrival of food in the stomach. During this phase, the secretion involves the activities of the hormone gastrin and vagus (Heuther ; McCance, 2017). The third phase of gastric acid secretion is an intestinal phase where the secretion is stimulated by the presence of food and digested food products in the small intestine. While in this phase, a small quantity of gastric acid is secreted. However, the secretion of gastric juice is inhibited by the presence of the digested food products and acid in the duodenum.
Changes Associated with GERD, PUD, and Gastritis Disorders
There are changes that occur during gastric acid stimulation and the production associated GERD, PUD, and gastritis disorders. GERD is a common acid condition that results from reflux of gastric acid in the stomach. The presence of GERD causes increased stimulation and production of gastric acid because of the high volume of gastric acid that refluxes into the esophagus. PUD (Peptic Ulcer Disease), refers to a breakdown in the inner lining of the duodenum resulting in a sore in the stomach or esophagus. The presence of a high number of parietal cells causes increased production of gastric acid, which causes PUD. Gastritis disorder is a condition where stomach mucosa becomes swollen and has inflammation causing erosion of secretory glands (Patti, 2016). The presence of gastritis disorder, therefore, reduces the stimulation and the secretion of gastric acid.
Diagnosis and Treatment
The symptoms of GERD include heartburn and acid regurgitation, persistent cough, chest pain, tooth decay, and asthma (Heuther ; McCance, 2017). The treatment can be achieved using hyptonics, neuroleptics, and antidepressants. The most common complaint of PUD is stomach pain and is it caused by bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The treatment method includes those aims at relieving symptoms, preventing secretion of excess gastric acid and promote healing of epithelial. Diagnosis of gastritis disorder is achieved through physical examination, evaluation of family history and in some cases laboratory examination to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The symptoms include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, belching, and bloating. Treatment methods include the use of antibiotics, patient education, and antacids such as Maalox, Mylanta, and Riopan.
Gender as a Patient Factor
GERD affects both women and men equally. Research to establish trends in women who tend to experience heartburn, chest pain and regurgitation have indicated insignificant variation to those in men. PUD is more likely to affect women as compared to men because the production of hormonal gastric acid in women is relatively less. Gastritis disorder affects all genders equally.