Focus question- To what extent did the crusades affect the majority of Jerusalem
Focus question- To what extent did the crusades affect the majority of Jerusalem (Holy Land) after the Crusades began?
Jerusalem was affected to a large extent during the period of the crusades. The earliest military orders evolved in Jerusalem in the start of the first crusade, beginning to play a major role in Europe’s territorial expansion. The First Crusade followed in the growth of the crusader states in the Levant (the eastern Mediterranean), which were ruled and populated by Settlers of Europe. This states that; “Crusading in northern and eastern Europe led to the expansion of kingdoms like Denmark and Sweden, as well as the creation of new political units” (Khan Academy, 2018). As areas around the Baltic Sea were taken; crusaders, traders and settlers moved in and increased economically. In the Mediterranean Sea, crusading led to the defeat and colonization of many islands. This helped ensure Christian control of Mediterranean trade routes. Crusading also played a role in the conquer of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). This was finally completed in 1492, when the Spanish sovereigns Ferdinand II and Isabella I defeated the last of the Muslim communities on the Peninsula. The crusades consisted of ‘The children’s crusade” started by a French child named Stephan and a German child named Nicholas; “Tens of thousands of children gathered to march to the Holy Land” (Ken Nelson, 2018). Disaster caused none of the children to make it to the Holy Land; many of them didn’t return, or the few remaining were sold into slavery. After this action, Jews were banned from the country. This then impacted the European territorial expansion in dominant ways. Arguably, the Pope’s control over the church and financial changes to the church’s actions became more effective due to the movement. It also reflected and influenced religious trends.
Focus question- How did people record the crusades and what is their legacy?
Historians recorded the crusades through speeches, stories and documents. These documentations created a legacy for the Pope, the general outlines of his response being clear and powerful. The response to the situation of the Crusades startled the Pope. Increasing quantities of Franks (both noble and common) answered the Pope’s call with eagerness, and streamed east in multiple waves. Among everyone’s expectations, they recovered Jerusalem in July 1099, establishing several Crusader states which would last for two centuries. “They left their mark on the Western imagination, both then and now.” (Paul Crawford, 1997); this creating an ongoing legacy for both the Christian and Islamic worlds. As this historical event continued, some of the legacy was positive as some of it was negative. According to many historians, “They began a movement which lasted beyond the Middle Ages and into Modern times” (Paul Crawford, 1997). In November 1095, Pope Urban II gave an important speech at the end of a church session in Clermont, France. He called upon the honour of Western Europe; “The Franks, to go to the East and assist their Christian brothers, the Byzantines, against the attacks of the Muslim Turks” (Paul Crawford, 1997). The Pope also encouraged them to release Jerusalem (the most sacred and beloved city in Christendom), from the control of the Muslims. Overtime, many versions of the Pope’s speech have survived. Although we cannot know the exact words he used, the general outlines of his speech are clear and meaningfulto history.