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Fishery is another pivotal economic sector of the state as well as the district economy

April 27, 2019 0 Comment

Fishery is another pivotal economic sector of the state as well as the district economy. It is not only a source of animal protein but also a popular economic activity in a coastal district like Balasore. Because it generates a more remunerative, stable income than agriculture, a number of villagers are getting involved in this activity. The unemployed rural youth are getting a significant opportunity to earn money without migrating elsewhere. Previously, the occupation was limited to ‘Keuta’ sub-caste of Scheduled Caste category but the continuous remunerative earning has attracted all other castes. It is obvious that a long 80 km coastal line provides enormous opportunity for marine fishing. But the district also has enormous inland and brackish water resources suitable for inland fishing.
The fishing of the district may be broadly classified into three categories i.e. a) Marine b) Inland fresh water c) Brackish water. Balasore district is rich in all three forms of fishing as it possesses 80 km of coast line with 538 sq km of continental shelf. The coastal villages of blocks Bhograi, Baliapal, Balasore, Remuna and Bahanaga practise fishing. Twelve landing bases located in the coastal blocks of the district are – Talasari, Kirtania, Kankadapal, Choumukh, Hanskara, Bahabalpur, Chandipur, Mahisali, Khandia, Jamuca, Gadeisagar and Panchubisa (Fig.6.10). As per information provided by the Assistant Director of Fisheries, Marine there are 290 fishing villages located in the marine sector consisting of 14704 families with 115931 population up to 2012. There are 40923 males and 39928 females and the number of children are 35070. Among the total males 25687 are active fishermen i.e. almost 60.77% and rest are engaged as part time fishermen (Manual1, Assistant Director of Fishing, Balasore, 2012). Five marine extension units working in the district are Chandaneswar, Bahabalpur, Chandipur, Baliapal,and Gopalpur (Fig.6.10). There are almost 1672 number of registered fishing boats in operation under different landing bases of the coast, covering different categories namely Trawler, Gillnetter, Motorized and Country Crafts for fishing .In 2009-10 the number was 2213.
Among these blocks, Balasore Sadar is mostly advanced in marine fishing. Continuous demands of marine fishes in foreign countries and other states have encouraged development of fishing harbours in specific locations. Among them, Balramgadi in Balasore plays a significant role. Except this, Kharasahapur, Maharudrapur, Chaumukh, Udaipur, Talsari, Kasafal are locally known standard fishing spots (Fig.6.10). Except this, coastal belt fishing is done at a small scale to supply the local market, and for consumption. The villages located along the coast engage in fishing beside cultivation. But in many cases agriculture holds a passive role in the economy. As the lands are salt effected in the coastal parts of Balasore, Remuna, Baliapal, Bahanaga so the lands are used as water tanks or ‘Bheries’ to cultivate salt water fishes like lobster, bhetki , etc inducing a change of land use. However the Orissa Fishing Act plays its own role in legislative control over fishing.

6.2.1Marine fishing: The history of marine fishing of Balasore district is enriched form the time period when present Bhadrak district was a part of it. At that time there was 130 km coastline of Balasore. According to the District Gazetteer of Balasore, in 1981, a survey conducted by Fisheries Department revealed that the district had 84000 fishermen population. But after the division of Bhadrak and Balasore, this figure has reduced and the coastline also has become 81 km. In 1962 first mechanized fishing was introduced (Behuria, 1992) and traditional cotton twine for making fishing net was replaced by nylon. This also helped a lot to develop the marine fish production. Some steps have also been implemented to develop marine fisheries –
i) Establishment of ice plants and cold storages and speedy mechanism for fishing with the help of institutional finance and availability of subsidy.
ii) Better harbouring facility including mooring and repairing.
iii) Operating new trawlers and gill netters at Chandipur with a research on the diversification of fishing method.
iv) Establishment of co-operative society to deal with mechanized fishing.
With the help of these steps the production of marine fishes has increased. As Chandipur is an eminent port for fishing, the Fisheries Department has constructed an ice plant for the private fishermen at a reasonable cost. A concrete ‘T’ jetty with approach road, diesel, outlet and drinking water facility was constructed at a cost of Rs. 15 lakhs at Chandipur with funds provided by Government of India. This was a landing base for mechanized and traditional vessels. But the jetty is not used by the fishermen as they find it more convenient for landing their fish in the traditional fishing base at Balaramgadi (Behuria, 1992). However maximum production of fish of this district comes from marine fisheries. On an average 34048 metric tons of fish/year have been produced with only 8.35% of variabilityduring1994-2011 period. Though the production is quite impressive but this is not consumed by the locals as maximum of the production is used for export purpose. Among the blocks, only

Table6.38a: Marine fish production of Balasore district and it’s percentage to total fish production.
Year
Marine fish
Production
(in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production Year
Marine fish
Production
(in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production
1994-95 31736 40330 78.69 2004-05 32399.4 42838.01 75.63
1995-96 33153 42154 78.65 2005-06 33788.5 45237.81 74.69
1996-97 35491 46041 77.09 2006-07 34938 47950.76 72.86
1997-98 40965 50072 81.81 2007-08 35163.4 47643.99 73.80
1998-99 29511 37533 78.63 2008-09 35916 49667.54 72.31
1999-00 31515 37194 84.73 2009-10 35997.7 52510.05 68.55
2000-01 34914.55 44489.3 78.48 20010-11 35182.8 51142.76 68.79
2003-04 30061.01 39646.85 75.82
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997,1999,2001,2005,2007,2009,2011

Balasore Sadar block has sufficient infrastructure. In Balramgadi, Chandipur, dry fish producing and packaging is done significantly. The progress of marine fishing is mainly concentrated in Bahanaga, Balasore, Bhograi, Remuna and Baliapal blocks (Fig.6.11). Among these four blocks variability of the production is low, only 11.48% and 11.84% respectively for Baliapal and Bhograi blocks (Fig 6.12).

Table6.38b: Year wise production of Marine fish (in MT) of five coastal blocks of Balasore district.
Blocks 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 2000-01 2004-05 2006-07 2008-09 2010-11
Bahanaga 2553 4466 4013 3241 2605 2670.9 4555 4518.8
Balasore 23742 28281 16756 22090.85 20261.4 22435 13249 22050
Baliapal 3252 3827 4084 4355 4207 4531 4611 4724
Bhogorai 4030 4391 4658 3500.2 3497 3498 3500.5 3890
Remuna 1914 0 0 1727.5 1829 1803.1 0 0
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997,1999,2001,2005,2007,2009,2011

But for Balasore and Bahanaga blocks it is 21.44 % and 25.33% respectively. The villagers mainly go for two types of practice- private and as a fisherman identified from Marine Department. According to them the fisherman who works for marine department gets an identity card and 20kgs of rice per head.
Marine fishing provides different types of earning opportunities. Due to the vast extent and mechanized nature, a number of persons of local and other villages get involved. Due to the traditional thinking and also to secure food, many remain cultivators. But in regions where ample opportunity of fishing exists, it becomes the first priority. Marine fishing provides huge turnover if done properly. Balaramgadi, Chaumukh, Kashafal, Talsari are well known port sites for fishing related with massive turnover. Among these, Balramgadi of Chandipur mainly provides the fish production that is exported. According to official sources- from Balramgadi annual turnover from marine fishing is almost Rs.3 crores and fishes worth almost 100 to150 crores are exported each year (Prameya news, 2016). During field survey in 2012 the similar statement from the trawler owners has been received but they have stated that the annual turnover from marine fishing is around 1.5 to 3 crores. A trawler owner can earn up to Rs 50 lakhs per annum even when fishing is not possible during 4 months of the rainy season. The different jobs or occupational involvement that directly influences the livelihood are-

a) As worker in the trawler or fisherman or boy: This is the best available option for the villagers. The employed fisher boy gets 4000 rupees monthly salary from the trawler owner. In Balramgadi port almost 507 trawlers are working and numbers of persons are working as fisher boys mainly from the nearby villages of Chandipur, Parikhi, Majhisahi, Srikona and Pongta.

b) As worker in the ice plant: Many of the workers work in the ice plants. Ice is required for preserving the fishes. The trawlers collect the ice from the ice cutter plant before leaving for
fishing. The workers are engaged in the work against a fixed wage. In the four months that fishing is stopped, the workers either migrate or go for any other job.

c) Dry fish production: This is a most popular job in the region. In Balramgadi region almost all the villagers are engaged in production of dry fish. Various fishes are collected either from ‘Bheries’ or from marine fishing and left on bamboo benches or hung from a bamboo made row or platform until they get sun dried. These sun dried fishes are profitable. Different fish species

like lote or Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus), Bhetki (Lates calcarifer), Bhola (Johnius belengeri), Parse ( Liza parsia), prawn, and many others are sundried, packed and marketed. All these fishes are sold at a rate of 150 rupees/kg on an average. These sundried fishes are mainly sold at the local markets or other block markets. The most important feature is the participation of women in the field. The village women are fully involved from dressing to the end product. A numbers of stages are followed from the collection to the production of the final product. After collecting the fish the workers are advised to dress up the fish. For dressing up one tub of fish (approximately 7 kg) the women labourers get 15 rupees and in one week they can dress up 20 tubs of fish. Hence, they can earn almost 300 rupees weekly. The participation of women in this field is quite significant. (Singh.A,et al,2013). As per the Technical Bulletin-25(2013) entitled ‘Socio-economic Status of Coastal Fisherwomen Involved in Fisheries Post-harvest’, women work participation in the fisheries sector is as follows “In fisheries, the post-harvest sector provides maximum employment to women. Every 5 kg of fish produced provided employment for 2 persons – one in active fishing and one in postharvest sector. About 5 lakh women are employed in pre and post-harvest operations in the marine fisheries sector alone in the total work force of 12 1akh persons. The involvement of fisherwomen in the fishery related activities provides additional income to their family. But the income they are getting is not always the same as compared to the wages that men get for the same work’. Among the marine products, dry fish is most profitable. The relatively poor villagers also prepare dry fish for their consumption and primary sale. Generally they collect small fishes and shrimps and dry them on the metalled road for a number of days. Usually two types of dried fishes are produced. These are normal dried fish and salted dried fish. Normal dried fish are more common. The harbour environment and windblown sands lower the quality of the fish.

d) Fish vending: Normally fish vending is also a profitable business. The FLC or the Fish Landing Centers are the hub of this business. After catching fish from the nearest marine location a group of fishermen collect the fish in the FLC. The local businessmen come to the spot for auction. According to the auction they buy fish and sell to the local market. A number of farmers directly sell the fish.

Table 6.39: Name of the FH, FLC & Jetty with yearly average catch and common species
Name of the
FH/ FLC/
Jetty Location Yearly average catch(inMT) Common species abundance in normal catch
Chandipur FLC Balramgadi 9950.00 Sciaenid, Ribbon fish, Other clupeids, Catfish, Other mackerels, Flat fish Prawn, pomfret, Misc. species
Bahabalpur (jetty) Bahabalpur 7640.00 Sciaenid, Hilsa shad, Other shad, Clupeids, Catfish, pomfret, Misc. fishes.
Khandia FLC Khandia 1065.00 Do
Mahisali FLC Mahisali 1575.00 Do
Talsari Jetty Talsari 1945.00 Hilsa shad, Other shad Bombay duck, Silver Pomfret, Misc.
Kirtania Jetty Kirtania 1542.00 -do-
Kasia FLC Jambhirai 1610.00 Catfish, Mugil, Ribbonfish, Hilsa, Other shad, Clupeids, sciaenid,Misc.
Kankadapal FLC Choumukh 1596.00 do
Choumukha FLC Dagara 1520.00 Catfish, Mugil, Ribbon fish, Hilsa, Others shad, Clupeids, Sciaenid,Misc.
Panchubisa Jetty Barajdeuli 1485.00 Trichuridae, Mugil, Catfish, Hilsa, Other shad, Scienies, Shrimps, Thrisocles, Anchovies
Jamuea FLC Talapada 1830.00 Do
Gadeisagar FLC Villa 1120.00 Do
Source: Data on harbours/ jetty/ fish landing centres of Orissa,DOF, Government of Odisha, http://www.odishafisheries.com/File/DATA%20ON%20HARBOURS-FLC-ORISSA.pdf

e) Value added products: With marine fishing, value added products like fish cutlets, fish fingers, pickles may be produced and supplied to earn significant amount of money as in Udaypur and Talsari coasts. The different fresh fish, crabs are bought by the local fishermen and their wives. Then the fish are prepared and sold according to the requirements of tourists. The fish and their products are sold even in Digha (West Bengal), the nearest tourist spot with substantial number of tourists.

6.2.1.1 Total gathering of fish: Balasore district has enormous potential for marine fishing. Bahabalpur, Talasari and Chandipur are important fish landing centers and produce significant quantity of fishes. The district has almost 80250 MT productions potential and at current level 35287.38 MT or 43.97% of marine fish has been exploited. In the district two main catching seasons are present – a) August to October b) November to February. Normally the following fish are caught:
Summer (March – June): Hilsa, polynemids, sciaenids, catfish, shark, pomfret, other clupeids,
Ribbon fish
Winter (October – February): Shrimp, clupeids, black pomfret, seer, silver belly, Bombay duck, ribbon fish, cat fish, scianeids, perches, mugil etc.

Rainy season: Hilsa, pomfret, shark, soles (Behuria, 1992)

6.2.1.2 Available Infrastructure for marine fishing: The development and progress of marine fishing depend on the available infrastructural facility. Large scale marine fishing requires jetties, trawlers, motorised crafts, preservation utensils, cold storages, ice plants, etc. to provide quality products. According to the Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, in 2010, Balasore district had 12 fish landing centers and jetties present for marine fishing operation. Now there are only five jetties and seven FLC or fish landing centers in the district. Chandipur and Bahabalpur are two significant places with infrastructural facility. On the survey date 14th April 2012, almost 251 trawlers were available in the Balramgadi or Budhabalanga confluence within which 77 were operating. The uses of motorised and country craft are maximum in all the coastal blocks (Figs.6.13 & 14) (Table 6.37)

Table:6.40 Fish landing centers and number of boats in fishing operation
Block place Type No. of Boats in operation
Trawler Gillnetter Motorised
craft BLC Country craft Total
Balasore
Chandipur Jetty 407 0 65 0 30 502
Bahabalpur Jetty 149 187 137 0 64 537
Masaahisali FLC 0 0 35 0 0 35
Khandia FLC 0 0 25 0 0 25
Soro Panchubisa Jetty 0 0 70 0 18 88
Bahanaga Gadei sagar FLC 0 0 21 0 40 61
Remuna Jammuca FLC 0 0 83 0 20 103
Baliapal
Hanskara FLC 0 0 74 0 153 227
Choumukh FLC 0 0 37 0 73 110
Kankadapal FLC 0 0 30 0 130 160
Bhograi
Talsari Jetty 0 4 158 0 79 241
Kirtania Jetty 0 0 79 0 45 124
Total 556 191 814 0 652 2213
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, Balasore 2010

Among the fish landing centers Bahabalpur and Chandipur have maximum number of total boats in operation whereas Khandia and Masaahisali have minimum number of boats operating. In the Balasore District Gazetteer, 360 mechanized boats and 2500 traditional boats (1992) were operating and the major landing bases were Dharma, Chandamani, Kasafal, and Talasari. During that time an ice plant with cold storage facilities was constructed at Chandipur and also a concrete ‘T’ jetty with approach road, diesel outlet and drinking water facility was constructed. This was also facilitated with landing base for mechanized and traditional vessels. Constructed road and its linkage with Orissa trunk road provide the facility to export the fishes in different parts of India especially in the East and North-East. Three main fisherman co-operative societies were established at three main fishing points. Except these, 27 other co-operative societies were also operating(Behuria,1992).

Table 6.41: Name of the co-operative societies operating in Balasore and their strength
Name of the co-operative society Location Number of fishermen engaged Gillnetters
Rajlaxmi Fisherman co-operative society Chandipur, Balasore 200 40
Kirtania Fisherman co-operative society Kirtania, Bhograi 115 23
Source: Balasore District Gazetteer, 1992.

Numbers of cold storages are operating in these places to provide preservation. In Balasore almost 2920 fisherman cooperatives were existing in 2010 to provide economic stability to the fishermen. Different road making projects up to the fish landing centers are being taken up. Fisheries Department has taken a significant role in developing the infrastructure of the places related with fishing. The fishery related infrastructure of the villages provided by the Marine Fisheries Census 2010, shows that there were 4 boat yards, 08 cold storages,1 freezing plant and 1 processing plant.

Table6.42: Name & Production Capacity of the main Ice plants operating in Balasore district 2005
Sl no Name of the Ice plants Production Capacity Sl no Name of the Ice plants Production Capacity
1 Padmabati Ice Plant Balasore 10 MT Proof Road, Digiria 10 MT 5 Mahalaxmi ICE Plant 10 MT Patrapada, Balasore, Orissa 10 MT
2 Saragan Ice Plant 12 MT M/s. S.K. Saffig, Sarnan Mahamad, Saragan, Balasore, Orissa. 12 MT 6 Subarna ICE Plant, 15 MT Naupalgadi, Chandipur Balasore, Orissa. 15 MT
3 Arnapurna ICE Plant, 10 MT Bardhanpur, Balasore Orissa.
10 MT 7 Singh Bhabani ICE Plant, 10 MT Sinduri, Balasore, Orissa. 10 MT
4 Sibagauri ICE Plant, 9 MT Gudupahi, Balasore, Orissa
9MT 8 Sankar ICE Plant & Processing 10 MT Industries, Naupalgadi, 10 MT
Source: Annexure- XXIII, Diagnostic Study of Fishery Cluster, Gudupahi, Orissa. (2005), http://odishafisheries.com/oriya/File/Report%20on%20Gudupahi%20Fishery%20Cluster-dec04.pdf

Marketing and relation with economy: Marine fishing and the related income are dependent upon the marketing strategies. Large numbers of intermediates are involved in marketing. Like the other coastal districts of Orissa, Balasore also experiences the same marketing problems. According to the fishermen and dry fish makers sometimes there are three to five intermediaries so they get a minimum rate for their hard work. Actually Balasore district holds a quite impressive status in fishing. As maximum of the fishes are exported outside so the demand exceeds supply, resulting in increase of price. During 1996 to 1999 the monthly price of Balasore district higher than the other coastal districts engaged in marine fishing. The scenario has changed a lot as the production has reduced but different mechanized methods have been introduced. During 1980-81 to 1994-95 the district contributed 34.01 percent of the total marine
fish production. The rise of annual price indices for big sea fish was almost 15.48 % within 1980-81 to 1994-95 that was more than the average of the state. (Naik, 2001)

6.2.2 Inland fishing: Inland fishing is the most common form of activity followed by the villagers. The low lying depressions are suitable for the development of inland or fresh water fishing. Except Nilagiri and Oupada C.D Blocks, the entire district of Balasore is plain and low-lying, so almost every house-hold has a small pond (Behuria,1992). Without any scientific culture, at least 260 kg per acre per annum production can be expected and it ranges up to 600 kg per acre per annum if it is done following scientific methods . The total area excluding the rivers / canals is almost 6258.29 ha. Three basic types of tanks are used for fishing purpose – Gram Panchayat (GP) tank, Revenue tank and private tank (Fig.6.15). Balasore block had maximum area used for fishing under GP tanks while Baliapal had lowest. The use of revenue tank was lowest in Bhograi block and highest in Nilagiri block. The private tank area was highest in Balasore block and lowest in Nilagiri block. CV has been calculated to find out the variability of each inland water resource potential. This reveals that maximum variability is found for private tank i.e. 81.61% and GP tank has minimum variability i.e. 49.68%. Other two potentials i.e. Revenue tank has 76.81% of variability and river canals have 77.32 % variability representing significant inconsistency. The production pattern also shows modified variability. On an average, 1706.99 quintal production potential has been recorded in the district and the CV

Table6.43: Potential Resources available in the district for Fresh Water Pisciculture (Area in ha)
Blocks GP Tank % share
Revenue
Tank % Private
Tank % share River/
Canals % share Total
Bahanaga 218.00 37.58 10.00 1.72 252.07 43.46 100 17.24 580.07
Balasore 252.53 13.29 32.13 1.69 1180.65 62.13 435.00 22.89 1900.31
Baliapal 50.02 13.20 33.20 8.76 195.63 51.64 100.00 26.40 378.85
Basta 83.56 14.02 18.70 3.14 243.64 40.89 250.00 41.95 595.9
Bhograi 87.85 7.48 3.56 0.30 782.55 66.66 300.00 25.55 1173.96
Jaleswar 103.36 13.77 26.15 3.48 371.15 49.44 250.00 33.30 750.66
Khaira 140.01 18.31 30.52 3.99 294.15 38.47 300.00 39.23 764.68
Nilagiri 124.21 20.67 80.70 13.43 145.91 24.29 250.00 41.61 600.82
Oupada 68.92 24.28 23.25 8.19 191.74 67.54 – 0.00 283.91
Remuna 135.27 30.15 6.09 1.36 277.23 61.80 30.000 6.69 448.59
Simulia 129.29 35.60 34.96 9.63 178.89 49.26 20.00 5.51 363.14
Soro 70.95 12.85 16.38 2.97 364.72 66.07 100.00 18.11 552.05
Total 1463.97 17.73 315.64 3.82 4478.68 54.23 2000 24.22 8258.29
Mean 122.00 20.10 26.30 4.89 373.19 51.80 177.92 23.21 699.41
STDV 60.61 9.77 20.20 4.10 304.57 13.53 137.57 14.30 445.38
CV(in %) 49.68 48.62 76.81 83.80 81.61 26.12 77.32 61.64 63.68
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, Balasore 2010 & compiled by author

is 45.60%. Balasore block shows maximum potential from GP tank and Baliapal block produces lowest. With regard to estimated potential from revenue tanks, Nilagiri block shows maximum value and Bhograi block has lowest potential. Production available from private tank is significantly high as each block gets almost 75.32% share of their fresh water fish on an average. Balasore holds first position in private tank fish production potential among all blocks and Nilagiri block holds last position in 2009-10. The fish production from various fresh water sources was maximum in Balasore i.e. 18.9%, but all other block has share less than 10% of the districts total production and among them Nilagiri holds least percentage i.e. 4.8%. So from a normal view the coastal blocks show maximum potential for fresh water pisiculture because of its extensive flat topography, number of surface water bodies and mild drought effects, required suitability. The blocks having coastal attachment like Bahanaga, Balasore, Baliapal, Bhograi, and Remuna share 54.27 % of total resource potential available in the district for fresh water pisciculture whereas the hilly blocks like Nilagiri. Oupada, Khaira share is only 19.98%. The rugged topographical condition and physiographical drought condition in these blocks play vital roles in reducing the potential. To develop inland fishing the most significant step of the Government was the establishment of the FFDA or Fish Farmers Development Agency in 1997-98.
Table 6.44: Estimated Annual Fish production (Qtls.) from Fresh Water sources (2009-10)
Blocks GP Tank % share Revenue
Tank % share Private
Tank % share River/
Canals % share Total
Bahanaga 3270.0 27.05 150.00 1.24 8483.2 70.18 184.0 1.52 12087.20
Balasore 3030.36 12.88 321.30 1.37 19316.34 82.08 865.0 3.68 23533.00
Baliapal 750.30 8.58 498.00 5.69 7343.5 83.95 156.0 1.78 8747.800
Basta 1253.4 11.48 280.50 2.57 8873.3 81.24 515.0 4.72 10922.20
Bhograi 1317.75 11.61 53.40 0.47 9736.05 85.79 242.0 2.13 11349.20
Jaleswar 1757.12 16.69 444.55 4.22 7971.53 75.71 355.50 3.38 10528.70
Khaira 1820.13 25.09 427.28 5.89 4951.29 68.26 55.00 0.76 7253.700
Nilagiri 1614.73 27.46 1049.10 17.84 3196.37 54.36 20.00 0.34 5880.200
Oupada 895.96 13.83 302.25 4.67 5269.49 81.35 10.00 0.15 6477.700
Remuna 2029.05 24.06 91.35 1.08 6128.1 72.66 186.00 2.21 8434.500
Simulia 1680.77 24.69 454.48 6.68 4433.25 65.11 240.00 3.53 6808.500
Soro 1064.25 8.95 245.70 2.07 9890.05 83.14 695.00 5.84 11895.00
Total 20483.82 16.53 4317.91 3.48 95592.47 77.14 3523.5 2.84 123917.7
Mean 1706.99 17.70 359.83 4.48 7966.04 75.32 293.63 2.50 10326.48
STDV 778.46 7.39 260.94 4.71 4179.07 9.48 269.81 1.76 4708.66
CV (in %) 45.60 41.79 72.52 105.13 52.46 12.59 91.89 70.43 45.60
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, Balasore 2010

There were some main objectives of the Agency as mentioned in the District Gazetteer- i) to cover available water area under modern pisciculture practice ii) to make available institutional finance to the fish farmers with necessary subsidy from the agency. iii) to prepare plan and estimate for renovation and excavation of tanks and to supervise the work through the technical staff. iv) to impart technical know-how to the fish farmers through the extension agency set up in each blocks. v) To train the fish farmers for scientific management of the culturable water area and also to train interested entrepreneurs on induced breeding of the Indian major carps (Catla, Rohi and Mrigal) and exotic carps (Silver carps, Grass carp and Cy. Carpio) (Behuria,1992)
‘Digha Fish farm’ in Balasore town was established in 1991-92 to supply good quality seeds to the farmers. The fish seed was supplied to the farmer at 50 rupees for 1000 fries excluding the packaging and transport costs(Behuria,1992 ) . During field survey it was noticed that the GP ponds are given in lease to the villager who wants to go for business for 1 year or in few cases for three years. In Jaleswar, Bahanaga, Soro, Simulia, Basta and Balasore blocks those villagers who are engaged in inland fishing and have taken lease from the Government can make profit up to 40000 rupees or more per season. In general the GP ponds are given lease against 2000 rupees per year. In Nilagiri Oupada and Bhograi blocks very limited numbers of ponds are leased out. This business is quite profitable and can be a better survival strategy. But it suffers for number of short comings. The most important of them is the political cause. The villagers don’t get the opportunity to have the lease as political preference exists. For taking lease of a pond the payment has to be given in advance to the Gram Panchayat. The GP pond suffers from lack of maintenance. From twenty seven surveyed villages 22 nos. or 81.48 % of the villages have only one Government pond for fishing purpose and rest 18.52% of the villages have two Government ponds given in yearly lease for fishing purpose. The average production varies from 1.5 quintal to 5.5 quintal per average size pond. About 25.93% villages have average estimated production of 2 to 4 quintal fish, 18.52% villages have more than 4 quintal production and 7.41% villages have only less than 2 quintal of production (Primary survey 2011-15). In general, major carps are cultivated. Except these, walking catfish, Indian torrent fish, Orange-fin labeo, Banded gourami, Corsula mrigal, yellow tail catfish, barred spiny eel, puntius sp., tilapia, are some of the common inland fresh water fish.In maximum cases the business is done after taking lease of the Gram panchayat ponds. If the pond is one’s own then the production is mainly consumed and a selected percentage of the product is marketed. Actually pisiculture is not well developed in the district. The interested persons are engaged in this business but the infrastructure or fish nurseries are really very nominal respective to the requirement. There are no government nurseries except for Balasore block. But private nurseries are available in Balasore, Basta, Remuna, Simulia and Soro. In total, nineteen private nurseries are present in the district covering an area of 16.98 hectare (Appendix 6.8). If proper infrastructure and subsidy are given to the farmers then they can switch to profitable option like fishing.
Table 6.45: Fish Nurseries available in the district (2009-10)
Blocks Government Private Total area (ha)
Nos. Area (ha) Nos. Area (ha)
Bahanaga – – – – –
Balasore 1 4.68 10 4.96 9.64
Baliapal – – – – –
Basta – – 2 1.24 1.24
Bhograi – – – – –
Jaleswar – – – – –
Khaira – – – – –
Nilagiri – – – – –
Oupada – – – – –
Remuna – – 3 4.02 4.02
Simulia – – 2 1.08 1.08
Soro – – 2 1.00 1.00
Total 1 4.68 19 12.30 16.98
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, Balasore 2010
Production pattern: Fresh water fishing is quite significant from the aspect of resource utilization. Though it is true that fresh water fish is only for consumption as maximum percentage of the marine and brackish water fish are exported. According to WHO per capita requirement of fish is almost 11kg/year (Comprehensive District Annual Plan, 2011-12). Though from 1996-97 to 2010-11 almost 5043.74 MT increase in fish production has been recorded. On an average within1996-97 and 2010-11 fish production was 8750.665 MT. The sector is emerging slowly and almost uniform production is occurring in different blocks. In the district the total produced fresh water inland fish in 2010-11 was 12671.7 quintals and total rural population was 2067236. So the per capita availability of fresh water inland fish is only .0061 quintals or .613 kg per year. This is significantly low in respect of mass rural population of the district. If block wise production pattern is observed than it can be stated that Balasore district has highest mean fish production. Nilagiri block records lowest average inland

Table 6.46: Fresh Water Fish production of Balasore district (1994-95 to 2010-11).
Year
Fresh water (in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production Year
Fresh water (in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production
1994-95 7628.00 40330 18.91 2004-05 8369.14 42838.01 19.54
1995-96 7378.00 42154 17.50 2005-06 9429.24 45237.81 20.84
1996-97 7056.00 46041 15.33 2006-07 10619.31 47950.76 22.15
1997-98 6440.00 50072 12.86 2007-08 10666.24 47643.99 22.39
1998-99 6575.00 37533 17.52 2008-09 11335.54 49667.54 22.82
1999-00 4632.00 37194 12.45 2009-10 13264.25 52510.05 25.26
2000-01 7652.55 44489.3 17.20 2010-11 12671.74 51142.76 24.78
2003-04 7542.97 39646.85 19.03
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997-2011

fresh water fish production (Fig .6.16 A & B). The villagers are mostly afraid of monetary loss so they generally avoid any challenging decision in their life. So they are reluctant to switch over to a new crop production or a profitable business like inland fishing. Besides this, political preference is also an important factor controlling the decision makings.

Table 6.47: Block wise fresh water inland fish production from 1996-97 to 2010-11
Block 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 2000-01 2004-05 2006-07 2008-09 2010-11 Mean STDV CV
(%)
Bahanaga 458.0 657.0 601.0 489.1 599.0 657.5 1002.7 1266.1 716.3 276.9 38.7
Balasore 785.0 1243 2016.0 1294.0 1249.5 2075.6 2088.9 3831.1 1822.9 943.2 51.7
Baliapal 423.0 225.0 459.0 370.7 614.5 979.7 569.7 783.8 553.2 240.8 43.5
Basta 780.0 309.0 253.0 549.0 663.1 986.6 928.9 768.5 654.8 268.9 41.1
Bhograi 543.0 489.0 533.0 1394.1 971.1 1432.1 942.9 1065.0 921.3 375.8 40.8
Jaleswar 573.0 1159 830.0 745.3 691.0 802.5 1024.7 0.0 728.2 347.5 47.7
Khaira 700.0 58.0 107.0 528.8 608.5 556.8 842.9 768.0 521.2 290.7 55.8
Nilagiri 445.0 317.0 206.0 284.9 358.5 459.4 582.7 476.9 391.3 121.7 31.1
Oupada 375.0 322.0 338.0 305.9 435.7 363.3 645.8 604.3 423.7 130.8 30.9
Remuna 832.0 721.0 521.0 556.1 991.4 516.9 905.0 850.9 736.8 186.3 25.3
Simulia 716.0 161.0 118.0 275.0 419.8 720.0 704.2 817.2 491.4 281.5 57.3
Soro 426.0 779.0 593.0 859.7 766.8 1069.1 1097.2 1440.1 878.9 318.1 36.2
Mean 588.0 536.7 547.9 637.7 697.4 884.9 944.6 1056
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997-2011
Cultivation is the most preferable option as this helps to give at least whole year food security. But at present it is unfortunately not bringing good results so they are thinking about an occupational switch. Cultivation gets affected due to the depression, cyclone and drought (locally termed as ‘moruri’). As subsidies also follow political preference or complicated rules, all the villagers are not assured. In general major carps are grown in these ponds and sold in the local market. On an average price of Ruhi (Labeo rohita) is 150/- per kg, Katla (Katla katla) is 120/- per kg per kg, mrigal(Cirrhinus cirrhosus) 110/- etc. generating profit.

Pisciculture in the inland ponds, with proper scientific method, can provide huge profits and this will ultimately help the unemployed and rural youth to bring stability and standard livelihood. In a 0.5 acre pond area estimated number approximately 50000 no of Indian Major Carp’s fingerlings can be stoked. With proper scientific method almost 15 to 25 quintals of fish harvest can be possible. Generally in an acre pond or tank 1000 yarlings can be stocked. The production is sold in local markets at Rs120 /- to Rs130/- KG. If in an average 20 quintals production sold at a rate of Rs/-125/Kg, in the market then total Rs250000/- can be earned. If the expenditure for this project is 120000 ( including buying fish fry, fish food, lime, urea, SSP, floating pallets, nets, labour wage, transport cost etc. then also the net profit from pisciculture becomes Rs 130000/-. From this profit further ponds and tanks can be kept under the pisciculture and profit can be attained. The cost of production not only includes cost of raw materials but also it includes, miscellaneous expenses, wages, repair and maintenance, interest and sustenance

Table: 6.49Raw materials required for fish farming per annum (for 2 ha tank)
Items Quantity Rate Annual value (in Rs/-)
Lime 1000 kg 10/kg 10000
Fingerlings 10000 nos. 200/thousands 2000
Organic manure 30 ton 100/ton 3000
Urea/Triple Super Phosphate L.S 2000
Mustard oil cake 2700 kg 3 / kg 8100
Rice bran 2700 kg 1.5 kg 4050
Total 29150
Source: Fish Farming, NSTFDC (n.d), http://nstfdc.in/userfiles/fishfarm.pdf
allowance if any. In Composite pisciculture there could be an investment for the required construction works like giving bunds around the pond or tank and inlet outlet system etc and it also includes the raw material and other wages. An outline of the raw material required and related cost can be conceptualized from the table 6.47. Though it is true that all the villagers engaged in the inland fishing based livelihood doesn’t follow the scientific method properly.

6.2.3 Brackish water: Brackish water has become the best alternative to the fishermen or the village. Keeping in mind the export demand and facility, prawn culture has been given foremost importance. According to the Fisheries Department, 17000 hectares of low lying brackish water area is present in the district and can be used for the development of fin and shell fish farming. According to Behuria.N.C (1992), ‘In the district of Baleshwar, out of 3236 hectares of brackish water, approximately 2560 hectares are feasible to undertake coastal aquaculture’. To encourage brackish water resource and fisheries development, Brackish Water Fisheries Development Agency has been established. The main aim was to increase prawn culture in the low lying areas, close to the sea shore, to enhance the scope for self employment. The main objectives of this Agency were to bring prawn culture on a cooperative basis, collection of prawn seeds from natural resources and their transportation to the fish farmers. A pilot project on brackish water farming with financial assistance from Government of India has been started at Inchudi in Balasore district and pilot studies are being conducted since 1983. The agencies (Brackish water Fisheries Development Agency-B.F.D.A) have been set up newly in August 1983. Reclamation of the brackish water became significant for the development of rural areas. Numbers of schemes are implemented. The leasing policies are implemented by the state government to attract the villagers for the proper utilization of the land resource. Government of Orissa has implemented the scheme for weaker section as well as for the stronger sections. In 1981 it was suggested by the state government that within the total brackish water resource of the district 75% will be reserved for the weaker sections of the society and 25% has to be reserved for the entrepreneurs/firms/ companies etc. In the contemporary time one individual is allowed to take only 0.5 ha of land on a long term lease for 15 years. The schemes are suggested separately for both confined water ponds and tide fed ponds.

Figure 6.16: A) Estimated total fish production from different fresh water source (2009-10) of different blocks of Balasore district. B) Fish production from different fresh water source (1996-97 to 2010-11) of different blocks of Balasore district

SCHEME-1
i) Confined water ponds Unit: 1 ha
Capital investment (earth work) and lease value …………………… Rs/- 29375
ii) Operational expenditure
(inputs for first crop, harvesting cost, watch and ward etc.)………… Rs/-5750
Total: 35125 say (35000)
iii) Annual income
Sale of prawn from first crop @ 50% retrieval with average
growth of 25g/90-110 days At 20000/ha. Stocking 250kg.
@ Rs. 60 per kg. Rs/- 15000
Sale of prawn from second crop @ 40% retrieval -200 kg
@ Rs. 60 per kg. Rs/- 12000
Total Rs/- 27000
Net annual income after meeting operational cost for 2nd crop Rs/- 21250 (27000-5750)
After meeting expenditure for two crops Rs/- 15500 (27000-11500)

SCHEME-2
i) Tide fed ponds Unit: 1 ha
Capital investment (site clearance, earth work, feeder canal,
Watchmen shed lock gate and lease value) …………………… Rs/- 38300
ii) Operational expenditure………… Rs/-5500
Total: Rs/- 43800
iii) Annual income
Sale of 450 kg prawn from second crop
@ Rs. 60 per kg. Rs/- 27000

Net annual income after meeting operational cost for 2nd crop Rs/- 21500
After meeting expenditure for two crops Rs/- 16000
Source: Kindo.L, 1987, Brackish Water fisheries Development in Orissa, p.51 from the book Brackish Water Aquaculture Development in India: Status and Task Ahead, Srivastava.U.K, Dholakia B.H edited, first publish (1987), Concept publishing company, New Delhi-110015
These schemes have helped the villagers to fulfill the necessary steps to find out the stability in the earning. The first progress of the brackish water development in the district was applied by excavating the ponds as a step of IRDP or Integrated Rural Development Programme. “Under Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) of Government of India, 78 ponds in one cluster covering of 15.79 ha. area at Jaydevkasaba , in Balasore district have been developed during 1983-84 for brackish water prawn culture. Seventy eight beneficiaries under the IRDP schemes have been assisted with 33.33% subsidy support from the District Rural Development Agency, Balasore for the pond excavation and first crop input'( Kindo,1987). Between 1996-97 and 2010-11, the average production of the district was 2163.92 MT. The trend is positive as a gradual rise in the production can be noticed year after year Brackish water fish production

Table 6.50: Brackish water fish production of Balasore district
Year
Brackish water (in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production Year
Brackish water (in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production
1994-95 966 40330 2.40 2004-05 2069.47 42838.01 4.83
1995-96 1623 42154 3.85 2005-06 2020.07 45237.81 4.47
1996-97 3494 46041 7.59 2006-07 2393.45 47950.76 4.99
1997-98 2667 50072 5.33 2007-08 1814.35 47643.99 3.81
1998-99 1447 37533 3.86 2008-09 2416 49667.54 4.86
1999-00 1047 37194 2.81 2009-10 3248.1 52510.05 6.19
2000-01 1922.2 44489.3 4.32 2010-11 3288.22 51142.76 6.43
2003-04 2042.87 39646.85 5.15
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997-2011
Table 6.51: Block wise brackish water inland fish production from 1996-97 to 2010-11
1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 2000-01 2004-05 2006-07 2008-09 2010-11 mean STDV CV(%)
Bahanaga 635 27 68 37.34 72.71 81.45 191.3 260 171.6 203.7 118.7
Balasore 1471 1533 826 1243.3 1102 1538.25 1410.12 1967.2 1386.4 339.1 24.5
Baliapal 388 651 289 154.91 337.5 206.35 201.07 257.82 310.7 157.2 50.6
Bhogorai 600 352 160 336.32 389.99 399.6 410.55 556.3 400.6 135.5 33.8
Remuna 400 104 104 150.33 167.27 167.8 202.96 246.9 192.9 96.2 49.9
Mean 698.8 533.4 289.4 384.4 413.9 478.7 483.2 657.6
STDV 446.1 609.7 311.5 491.9 405.3 603.6 526.3 743.6
CV (in %) 63.8 114.3 107.6 127.9 97.9 126.1 108.9 113.1
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997-2011
is most common in five blocks. Within these, Balasore produces almost 60% of the total districts production in 2011 {(1967.2/3288.2)*100=60%}.

Along the coast intensive shrimp culture can be noticed. Maximum of the culture ponds uses paddle wheel aerator and other advanced methods are used. From 2005 onward an attempt has been taken to cultivate shrimp in the sweet water by some of the farmers with other fishes like

6.2.4 Social status of the fisherman villages:
In Balasore district there were 415 fishing villages, 47162 fishermen families, 30150 traditional fishermen families, 27633 BPl fishermen families and 270615 fisher folk populations present. The sex ratio of the population was 876 females per thousand males and average family size was 5.74. Among the total fishermen population 53.72% population including males and females were unschooled as per the Marine Fisheries Census, 2010 In the district, 72656 were active fisher folk and 59.87% of the active fisher folk populations were engaged in actual fishing and 26.12% were engaged in part time fishing. Other 4521 population (4.5%) were engaged in fishing allied activities. In the villages, 37331 houses were kuccha and 9831 were pucca. Within the 415 villages, 280 villages or 67.5% of the villages have electricity, 27% have post office facilities. There were 126 fishermen co-operative societies, and 219 fishermen co-operative societies, 87 community centers,16 hospitals and 62 bus stops. There were 2920 i.e. (23.65%) members of cooperatives from fisheries co-operatives.

The Marine Fisheries Census 2010 CMFRI provides data on the taluk level. Taluk is a sub-division of district, generally a group of several villages organized for revenue purpose. So for the analysis of the socio-economic status of the fisherman villages, taluk based data has been used. Existing taluks of Balasore district are Balasore, Baliapal, Remuna, Jaleswar, Jaleswarpur, Simulia and Soro.
In Balasore district 43498 families are engaged in actual fishing (Fig.6.17A). Baliapal has 32.96% share of the district’s total full time actual fisherman families. Bhograi has second highest percentage i.e. 24.95%. Part time fisherman families are also high in Baliapal taluk (20.87%) and Jaleswarpur (0.33%) taluk it is lowest. (Appendix 6.8). The distribution of fishermen families’ village wise also shows a similar pattern (Fig.6.17B)

6.2.4.1Traditional fishermen families and BPL families: 68.95% of the families are traditional fishermen families. In Baliapal almost 49.15% are traditional fishermen. In the coastal villages of Bhograi 65.74% are traditional fishermen. In the coastal villages of Remuna and Soro traditional families are respectively 2287 or 92.67% and 4898 or 84.68%. Traditional fishermen families’ percentage was high in Bhograi block i.e. 21.43% (Appendix 6.9). Among all tahsils highest BPL fisherman families are present in simulia block i.e.84.95%. In Balasore tahsil least number of BPL families are present i.e. 44.67%. Except Jaleswar tahsil all other tahsils have BPL families within 50% to 70% of the total fisherman families of the tahsil. In Jaleswar the 75.5% of the fishermen families belongs to BPL category.

6.2.4.2 Fisher folk population: Baliapal shares 30.23% of district’s total fisher folk???(not clear to me what have u asked for) population. In Bhograi, percentage of fisher folk population was 21.45%. Except Balasore, Baliapal, Bhograi, Soro and Basta taluks, all other taluks have fisher folk population less than 10%. Percentage of fisherman families was high in Baliapal (25.3%) and Bhograi (23.3%) block. The fisher folk population is significantly high in the coastal regions (Appendix 6.).

6.2.4.3 Average family size: In population and demographic analysis the family size distribution is an important aspect. In Balasore block, on an average, there were 5 family members in each fisherman family according to Marine Fisheries Census 2010. The family size has been categorized and found that 43.75% of the villages have 5-6 family members and 4.68% of the villages have greater than 7 persons per family. Largest families are found in Baliapal taluk (13.22%) are found followed by Bhograi (3.16%). In Basta maximum number of small families is present.
Table 6.52: Categorization and variability of the average family size in percentage (2010)
Taluk 10.0
Bahanaga 24.49 46.94 24.49 0 4.08 0.0 0.0 0.0
Balasore 4.7 39.1 43.8 7.8 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0
Baliapal 0.83 12.40 22.31 22.31 14.05 9.25 4.96 13.22
Bhogorai 3.16 27.37 26.32 12.63 18.95 5.26 3.16 3.16
Remuna 16.67 58.33 16.67 0.00 16.67 0.0 0.0 0.0
Basta 46.4 32.1 10.7 7.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6
Jaleswar 18.5 48.1 7.4 3.7 3.7 7.4 11.1 0.0
Jaleswarpur 16.7 66.7 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Simulia 35.7 42.9 21.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Source of data: Marine Fisheries census 2010, CMFRI
6.2.4.4 Sex ratio: The variability of the sex ratio varies significantly in the coastal villages. Within the villages, maximum and minimum sex ratio ranges from 700 to 1100. The village based sex ratio pattern is shown in Table 6.49.

Table 6.53: Sex ratio of the fisherman village’s 2010
Taluk Sex ratio
1100 Total
In nos. In % In nos. In
% In nos. In % In nos. In % In nos. In
% In nos. In
% In nos. In %
Bahanaga 1 2.04 6 12.2 17 34.7 14 30.6 9 18.4 1 2.04 49 100
Balasore 1 1.6 3 4.7 22 34.4 27 42.2 8 12.5 3 4.7 64 100
Baliapal 12 9.9 8 6.6 40 33.1 39 32.2 18 14.9 4 3.3 121 100
Bhogorai 1 1.1 5 5.3 42 44.2 36 37.9 10 10.5 1 1.1 95 100
Basta 1 3.6 2 7.1 9 32.1 12 42.9 3 10.7 1 3.6 28 100
Jaleswar 9 34.6 4 154 8 30.8 4 15.4 1 3.8 0 0 26 100
Jaleswarpur 1 14.3 1 14.3 1 14.3 1 14.3 0 0 2 28.6 7 100
Remuna 5 41.7 5 41.7 1 8.3 1 8.3 12 100
Simulia 0 0 0 0 4 28.6 8 57.1 1 7.1 1 7.1 14 100
Source of data: Marine Fisheries Census 2010, CMFRI

6.2.4.5 Religious and caste composition: The fisherman families are basically Hindus. In Jaleswar, Jaleswarpur, Remuna and Simulia Taluk all fishermen families are Hindu. Only in Balasore 13.5% families are Muslims. The distribution pattern is given in Table 50. Major shares of fishermen families belong to SC community. Jaleswarpur records highest and Remuna lowest. Hence fishing definitely benefits the socially and economically backward classes.

Table 6.54: Religious and caste composition of fisherman families.
Taluk Total fisherman families Total Hindu families Total Islam families others SC/ST
In nos. In nos. In % In nos. In % In nos. In % In nos. In %
Soro/Bahanaga 5784 5718 98.9 66 1.1 0 0.0 4999 86.4
Balasore 6886 5889 85.5 932 13.5 65 0.9 4523 65.7
Baliapal 11711 11579 98.9 61 0.5 71 0.6 6079 51.9
Bhogorai 9807 9629 98.2 178 1.8 0 0.0 6479 66.1
Basta 6251 5863 93.8 188 3.0 0 0.0 3044 48.7
Jaleswar 2592 2592 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1518 58.6
Jaleswarpur 178 178 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 178 100
Remuna 2468 2468 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1150 46.6
Simulia 1575 1575 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1502 95.4
Source of data: Marine Fisheries Census 2010.CMFRI

6.2.4.6 Categorization of fishermen: Fisherman families are categorized by the actual and part time and nature of the activity. In Balasore taluk, 41.2 % are engaged in fulltime actual fishing and 25.5% are engaged as part time fishing. In Baliapal and Bhograi 75.4% and 74.3% fisherfolk population is engaged in fulltime actual fishing. In Simulia this percentage is lowest and its 29.5% fisherfolk is engaged in fulltime fish seed collection. Within total fisherfolk population of these taluks, 61.7% are engaged in fulltime fishing and 38.3% in part time fishing. The fish seed collection is most popular as part time job so 33.9% of the fisherfolk population is engaged in this. Within total fulltime and part time actual fisherfolk population, highest share is found in Baliapal taluk i.e. 32.96% and lowest in Jaleswarpur i.e. 0.38%. Fulltime fish seed collection share is highest in Soro i.e.26.6% and part time fish seed collection is highest in Balasore.
The occupational profile shows that active fisher men have the highest share among all taluks. The share of active fishermen is approximately 73% on an average. Other occupations include allied sectors like marketing, net repairing, processing, peeling, etc. Except active fishing other preference is found in marketing and labour works (Appendix 6.11).
Table: 6.55 Taluk based active fisher folk population
Taluk Actual fishing Actual fishing Fish seed collection Total
Ft Pt Ft ( %) Pt (%) Ft Pt Ft(%) Pt ( %)
Balasore 4387(41.2%) 2722(25.5%) 10.09 14.35 1135(10.7%) 2414(22.7%) 22.3 48.0 10658
Baliapal 14339(75.4%) 3960(20.8%) 32.96 20.87 73(0.38%) 645(3.39%) 1.4 12.8 19017
Basta 3566(46.4%) 2780(36.2%) 8.20 14.65 1254(16.3%) 87(1.1%) 24.6 1.7 7687
Bhograi 10854(74.3%) 3724(25.5%) 24.95 19.63 5(0.03%) 22(0.03%) 0.1 0.4 14605
Jaleswar 3105(61.0%) 1980(38.9%) 7.14 10.43 1(0.02%) 5(0.02%) 0.0 0.1 5091
Jaleswarpur 120(63.0%) 63(29.0%) 0.28 0.33 34(15.7%) 0(0%) 0.7 0.0 217
Remuna 2308(61.6%) 463(12.4%) 5.31 2.44 408(10.9%) 568(15.2%) 8.0 11.3 3747
Simulia 818(29.0%) 834(29.6%) 1.88 4.40 832(29.5%) 333(11.8%) 16.3 6.6 2817
Soro 4001(45.7%) 2449(28.0%) 9.20 12.91 1355(15.5%) 950(10.9%) 26.6 18.9 8755
Total 43498 (61.7%) 18975(38.3%) 100 100 5097(15.9%) 5024(33.9%) 100 100 72594
Source of data: Marine Fisheries Census 2010, CMFRI Ft= Full time, Pt= part time

Table 6.56: Occupational profile
taluk active fisher man marketing
net repair process sing peeling
labourer
other other than fishing Total
Bahanaga
/Soro In nos. 8715 547 511 268 21 798 130 1763 12753
In % 68.34 4.29 4.01 2.10 0.16 6.26 1.02 13.82 100.0
Balasore
In nos. 10658 1383 1084 781 452 1125 23 1118 16624
In % 64.11 8.32 6.52 4.70 2.72 6.77 0.14 6.73 100
Baliapal
In nos. 19079 845 1050 788 81 991 11 78 22845
In % 83.51 3.70 4.60 3.45 0.35 4.34 0.05 0.34 100
Bhogorai
In nos. 14605 919 251 27 45 1290 23 1 17157
In % 85.13 5.36 1.46 0.16 0.26 7.52 0.13 0.0058 100
Remuna
In nos. 3747 264 288 3 10 135 0 271 4718
In % 79.42 5.60 6.10 0.06 0.21 2.86 0 5.74 100
Basta In nos. 7687 329 2973 633 70 1753 191 1238 14874
In % 51.68 2.21 19.99 4.26 0.47 11.79 1.28 8.32 100.0
Jaleswar In nos. 5131 698 424 28 29 272 0 0 6582
In % 77.96 10.60 6.44 0.43 0.44 4.13 0.00 0.00 100.0
Jaleswarpur In nos. 217 0 0 0 0 18 0 0 235
In % 92.34 0 0 0 0 7.66 0 0 100.0
Simulia In nos. 2817 269 922 897 12 43 0 56 5016
In % 56.16 5.36 18.38 17.88 0.24 0.86 0.00 1.12 100.0
Source: Marine Fisheries Census 2010, CMFRI
6.2.4.7 Education: the status of education is a significant controlling factor in social sector. The status of education in the fisherman villages varies significantly. Gender based discrimination is present. Maximum education is at the primary level. On an average 54%, 58.8 % and 74.6% males have secured primary, secondary and higher secondary education and within females 45.9%, 41.2% and 25.4% have secured primary, secondary, higher secondary education respectively. So almost 65.8% of the total population has got primary education, 28.9% have got secondary level education and 5.27% have got higher secondary education in an average. Highest level of primary level education is found in Bahanaga, secondary level education receivers are highest in Bhograi block and higher secondary education receivers are highest in Baliapal block.
Table 6.57: Distribution of educated males and females fisherman villages of taluks of Balasore district.2010.
Taluk Primary Secondary Higher secondary primary Secondary Higher Secondary
male female male female male female Total Total Total
Bahanag/Soro In Nos. 4478 3370 1419 974 381 133 7848 2393 514
In % 57.1 42.9 59.30 40.70 74.12 25.88 72.97 22.25 4.78
Balasore In Nos. 5772 4654 2413 1820 357 125 10426 4233 482
In % 55.36 44.64 57.00 43.00 74.07 25.93 68.86 27.96 3.18
Baliapal In Nos. 16007 15269 8563 6548 2740 1757 31276 15111 4497
In % 51.18 48.82 56.67 43.33 60.93 39.07 61.47 29.70 8.84
Bhogorai In Nos. 8580 8289 6659 4952 1619 407 16869 11611 2026
In % 28.85 49.14 57.35 42.65 79.91 20.09 55.30 38.06 6.64
Remuna In Nos. 1344 1074 584 330 83 16 2418 914 99
In % 55.58 44.42 63.9 36.1 83.84 16.16 70.48 26.64 2.89
Jaleswar In Nos. 3220 2901 2869 2217 559 329 6121 5086 888
In % 52.6 47.4 56.4 43.6 62.9 37.1 50.6 42.1 7.3
Jaleswarpur In Nos. 114 75 71 24 5 1 189 95 6
In % 60.3 39.7 74.7 25.3 83.3 16.7 65.17 32.76 2.07
Simulia In Nos. 1538 1101 108 56 18 5 2639 164 23
In % 58.3 47.7 65.9 34.1 78.3 21.7 93.4 5.8 0.8
Source: Marine Fisheries Census 2010, CMFRI ; compiled by author

6.2.5 Existing Fishery clusters: a general overview of Balasore block
The fishing clusters are mainly developed along the coast line of Balasore district extending more than 3 km from the coast (Fig.6.18 A, B, C, D). The fishery clusters have been developed and are expanding along the coast of Balasore district mainly focusing on shrimp culture and aquaculture. As stated earlier, the fisheries have developed on a massive scale along the coast of Balasore, Baliapal, Bhograi, Bahanaga and Remuna blocks. From 1990’s onward, the coastal villages are mainly transforming their land use to expand the fisheries to stabilize their economy and to gain profit.
In Balasore block the fisheries have developed in three zones. Starting from north – one cluster has been developed along Sartha and Panchpara River, next cluster has been developed along Budhabalanga River and its confluence and surroundings, and in the extreme south a significant cluster of fisheries along Orissa Coast Canal and its surroundings have been developed. The areal distribution shows that the range of the area of the tanks varies from