COURSE: DEFENSE AND STRATEGIC STUDIES NO: 40TH
INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF DEFENSE STUDIES, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY
MODULE PAPER (MILITARY THOUGHT)
INDONESIA MILITARY THOUGHT
(INDONESIA) COLONEL HENRA HARI SUTARYO
27 APRIL 2018
I the undersigned, I am fully aware of the college’s relevant regulations to protect intellectual property rights. I hereby authorize this paper to the College of Defense Studies; National Defense University to republish the whole or part of the paper, or store it in the relevant database for inquiry, the College may preserve and compile this paper by various means, such as photocopy and scanning.
Date: 27 April 2018
1. A GLIMPSES OF INDONESIA…………………..…………….2
2. BACK GROUND
2.1 DUTCH COLONIALISM 1580– 1942………….…….…….3
2.2 JAPANESE OCCUPATION 1942 – 1945…………….……3
3. WAR HISTORY
3.1 NATIONAL REVOLUTION 1945 – 1949…………….……4
3.2 OLD ORDER ERA1950 – 1966……………….…………….4
3.3 NEW ORDER ERA1966 – 1998…………….……………….5
4. FAMOUS MLITARY FIGURE AND MONOGRAPH………. 6
4.1 GENERAL SUDIRMAN……………………….……………6
4.2 GENERAL A.H NASUTION…………………………………7
5. MAIN VIEW POINT OF MILITARY THEORIES…….…….8
A military is a force authorized to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. It typically consists of an Army, Navy, Air Force, and in certain countries the Marines and Coast Guard. The task of the military is usually defined as defense of the state, and its citizens, and the prosecution of war against another state. The military may also have additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within a society, including, the promotion of a political agenda, protecting corporate economic interests, internal population control, construction, emergency services, social ceremonies, and guarding important areas. The military may also function as a discrete subculture within a larger civil society, through the development of separate infrastructures, which may include housing, schools, utilities, logistics, health and medical, law, food production, finance and banking.
After World War II, the world has been coming in to the modern warfare. Modern warfare is a war using the concepts, methods, and military technology. The concepts and methods have assumed more complex forms of the 19th- and early-20th-century antecedents, largely due to the widespread use of highly advanced information technology, and combatants must modernize constantly to preserve their battle worthiness. War in modern times has been the inclusion of civilians and civilian infrastructure as targets in destroying the enemy’s ability to engage in war.
The Indonesian Armed Forces was formed during the Indonesian National Revolution era in 1945 to 1949 when it undertook a guerrilla war along with informal militia. As a result of this, and the need to maintain internal security, the Armed forces including the Army, Navy, and Air Force has been organized along territorial lines, aimed at defeating internal enemies of the state and potential external invaders. The Indonesian military is currently implementing a unique military philosophy. This philosophy was implemented after a quite a long process of facing both external military aggressions and rebellions.
The aim of this paper is to outline some of the thoughts that are implemented by Indonesia Armed Forces. To achieve the aim, this paper will briefly introduce Indonesia, its war history, the famous military figures and monographs, main viewpoints of military theories and will be ended by the conclusion
1. A GLIMPSE OF INDONESIA
Indonesia is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the world’s largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometers, Indonesia is the world’s 14th largest country in terms of land area and the 7th largest in terms of combined sea and land area with over 261 million people; it is the world’s 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Austronesian and Muslim-majority country.
The Indonesian Armed Forces or Tentara Nasional Indonesia (abbreviated as TNI) encompasses the army (TNI Angkatan Darat or TNI-AD), the navy (TNI Angkatan Angkatan Laut or TNI-AL) and the air force (TNI Angkatan Udara or TNI-AU). While the main task of the TNI is to defend the nation, it also carries other non-military tasks such as providing rescue team in the case of natural disasters, peacekeeping force in conflict zones and even contributing as teachers in border area.
Based on a report by GlobalFirepower.com, Indonesia’s military power is currently ranked 14 of 133 countries. TNI’s power index score is the highest in Southeast Asia and on the 8th position in Asia, after superpowers Russia, China, India, Japan, Turkey, Egypt, South Korea, and Pakistan. The strength of the Indonesian military is reinforced by the 975,750 active and reserve military personnel. The same website reported that Indonesia’s military budget is at USD 6.9 billion annually, which ranked 30 of 133 countries. While the Indonesian air force is equipped by 441 aircrafts, the army has 418 combat tanks, 1,089 armored fighting vehicles, 117 artilleries, and 86 rocket projectors. The Indonesian Navy owns 221 naval assets, including submarines, corvette warships, and mine warfare vessels.
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with Chinese dynasties and Indian kingdoms. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following a period of Dutch colonialism starting from Amboina and Batavia, and eventually all of the archipelago including Timor and Western New Guinea, at times interrupted by Portuguese, French and British rule,
2.1 DUTCH COLONIALISM 1580 – 1942
Before the formation of the Republic of Indonesian, the military authority in the Dutch East Indies was held by the Royal Dutch East Indies Army and naval forces of the Royal Netherlands Navy established in 1830. Although both the Dutch Army and navy were not directly responsible for the formation of the future Indonesian armed forces, they had also provided military training and infrastructure for indigenous. Some of them would later become important TNI officers.
2.2 JAPANESE OCCUPATION 1942 – 1945
During Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Indonesian nationalism and militarism started to gain momentum support. Japanese to gain support from the Indonesian people in their war against the Western Allied force, Japan started to encourage and back Indonesian nationalistic movements by providing Indonesian youth with military training and weapons.
Japanese established PETA (Patriot). The Japanese intended PETA to assist their forces oppose a possible invasion by the Allies. The Japanese military training for Indonesian youth originally was meant to rally the local’s support for the Japanese Empire, but later it became the significant resource for the Republic of Indonesia. Many of these men who served in PETA, both officers and NCOs like Sudirman, formed majority of the personnel that would comprise the future armed forces. Meantime, during the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively. Japan surrendered to America and left Indonesia.
3. WAR HISTORY
3.1 NATIONAL REVOLUTION 1945 – 1949
On 17th August 1945 Indonesia proclaimed its independent. Two weeks later, Indonesia formed BKR (People Security Agency) this was an organization of militias in a united nationwide force to ensure the security remained intact across the newly declared independent Indonesia; it was created more as a civil defense force than an armed forces.
When confrontations became sharp and hostile between Indonesia and the Allied forces, on 5 October 1945 the TKR (People’s Security Armed Forces) was formed on the basis of existing BKR units; this was a move taken to formalize, unite, and organize the splintered pockets of independent troopers across Indonesia, ensuing a more professional military approach, to contend with the Netherlands and the Allied force invaders. TKR is now TNI the Indonesia National Armed Forces.
The Dutch did not recognize the independent of Indonesia. From 1945 to 1949 Indonesia made a war with the Dutch Empire. We named the war as The Indonesian National Revolution, It was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia. The four-year struggle involved sporadic but bloody armed conflict, internal Indonesian political and communal upheavals, and two major international diplomatic interventions. By 1949, international pressure on the Netherlands and the partial military stalemate became such that it recognized Indonesian independence.
3.2 OLD ORDER ERA 1950 – 1966
In this period, the Republic of Indonesia struggled to maintain its unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements in some provinces as well as the political pressure from the two major powers. From 1948 to 1962, the TNI was involved in local warfare in West Java, Aceh, and South Sulawesi against Darul Islam/Tentara Islam Indonesia (DI/TII), a militant movement aimed at establishing an Islamic state in Indonesia. From 1955 to 1961 the TNI faced the PRRI/Permesta rebellion in Sumatera and Sulawesi. This holds an essential place in Indonesian military history because it was led by army officers.
However. In 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia. The twenty-nine countries that participated at the Bandung Conference represented nearly one-quarter of the Earth’s land surface. The conference’s stated aims were to promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialism or neocolonialism by any nation. Sukarno the first president of the Republic of Indonesia portrayed himself as the leader of this group of states, which he later described as “NEFOS” (Newly Emerging Forces).
From 1961 to 1963, President Sukarno (the first Indonesia President) made the takeover of Western New Guinea a focus of his continuing struggle against Dutch imperialism. The TNI was involved in the military campaign to incorporate Western New Guinea into Indonesia, which pitted the TNI against Netherlands New Guinea. This first military campaign involved the army, navy and air force was politically and militarily supported by the US and the USSR. In term of military thought, this military campaign was very significant for Indonesia because many Indonesian military officers learned from the US how to manage the campaign in operational and tactical level.
In 1963 The TNI faced the rebellion of Republic of South Maluku. The Republic of the South Moluccas, was a self-proclaimed republic in the Maluku Islands founded on 25 April 1950. The main islands were Seram, Ambon, and Buru. The RMS on Ambon was defeated by Indonesian forces in November 1950, however, armed struggle continued on the island of Seram until December 1963. The defeat on Ambon resulted in the flight of the self-declared RMS government to the island Seram, and later on the formation of a government in exile in the Netherlands in 1966. When resistance leader Dr. Chris Soumokil was captured by Indonesian forces on Seram and executed in 1966
From 1962 to 1965 TNI fought in the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation. This undeclared war was from 1963–66 that stemmed from Indonesia’s opposition to the creation of Malaysia, the amalgamation of the Federation of Malaya (now West Malaysia), Singapore and the crown colony / British protectorates of North Borneo and Sarawak then in 1965 – 1966 The armed forces under Lt. General Suharto fighting against the Communist Party of Indonesia. The Communist Party was accused of murder of the TNI high ranking officer and coup against a legitimate government. He, then become the second president of Indonesia.
3.3 NEW ORDER ERA 1966 – 1998
In 1975, Indonesia received an integration of East Timor as the 27th province, the TNI fought against the East Timorese Guerilla. Integration of the East Timor is known as in the western terminology. East Timor is now independent. This event followed a year afterward by the insurgency in Aceh, flaring on-and-off from 1976 to 2005. The GAM a simply for Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (Free Aceh Movement) was a separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region of Sumatra from Indonesia. GAM fought against Indonesian government forces in the Aceh insurgency from 1976 to 2005, during which over 15,000 lives are believed to have been lost. The organization surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian Government.
4. FAMOUS MLITARY FIGURE AND MONOGRAPH
4.1 GENERAL SUDIRMAN
The most famous Indonesia military figure is General Sudirman. Sudirman first military career is in PETA (under Japanese control). In October 1945, 2 months after the proclamation, Indonesia established TKR (People Security Army) most of them are the ex KNIL and PETA member. Sudirman was appointed to be the first Commander in Chief of Indonesian Armed force. His leadership to command the People Security Army during the national revolution war and guerilla warfare era showed the very effective leadership. As the leader, he showed a great attitude, moral, bravery, loyalty and other leadership aspects to the nation, the armed forces and the people. Sudirman is known as a “brave and true hero”, a father figure who did uncountable deeds for his country, a “symbol of the strength of spirit, a “son of the revolution, as he was born in the revolution, and raised by the revolution.”
One of the famous battles he led is the Battle of Ambarawa. From October to December 1945, The British troop landed in Central Java to disarm Japanese troops and liberate POWs still detained in concentration camps. Initially, the troops were welcomed in the area. The governor agreed to provide them with food and other necessities in return for the Allies’ promise to respect Indonesia’s sovereignty and independence. The Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) was also in there and welcomed the British presence. However, when Allied and NICA troops began freeing and arming freed Dutch POWs in Ambarawa and Magelang, many locals were angered and the situation were further ruined when the British Troop began disarming members of the Indonesian Army.
On 11 December at 4:30 AM, the Indonesian Army launched an assault on the British Troop in Ambarawa. Indonesian artillery pounded the British Troop positions, which were later overrun by infantry. When the Semarang-Ambarawa highway was captured by Indonesian troops, Sudirman immediately ordered his forces to cut off the supply routes of the remaining the British Troop by using a pincer maneuver. The battle ended four days later on 15 December 1945, when Indonesia succeeded in regaining control over Ambarawa and the British Troop retreated to Semarang. Sudirman attitude and behavior, speeches and command is mostly quoted by Indonesia Armed Forces nowadays.
4.2 GENERAL A.H NASUTION
In 1940 Nasution applied to join the Dutch Military Training, as this was the only way to obtain military training. In September 1940 he was promoted to corporal, then three months later to sergeant. He subsequently became an officer in the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army. After Sukarno declared Indonesia’s independence in August 1945, Nasution joined the fledgling Indonesian Army. In May 1946, he was appointed Regional Commander which looked after the security of West Java. In this position, Nasution developed “the Theory of Territorial Warfare” which would become the defense doctrine of the Indonesian Army. This theory is about his thought explaining the importance of the unity between the Armed Forces and the people.
During the time in which he was not the army chief of staff, Nasution wrote a book called the Fundamentals of Guerrilla Warfare. This book was based on Nasution’s own experiences fighting and organizing guerrilla warfare during the Indonesian War of Independence. Originally released in 1953, this book would become one of the most studied books on guerrilla warfare and has been translated to many languages.
In 1958, Nasution made a famous speech. He said that the Armed Forces should have two functions. The two functions are 1) Defense and security and 2) Social and politic. Nasution declared that TNI should adopt a “middle way in its approach to the nation”. Indonesia Armed Forces should not be under the control of civilians. At the same time, the armed forces should not dominate the nation in such a way that it became a military dictatorship that would become the basis for the Dwifungsi Doctrine which the Suharto regime would adopt from 1966 to 1999. In 2000s this thought was reformed then the Indonesia Armed Forces the does not have a social and political function.
5. MAIN VIEW POINT OF MILITARY THEORIES
Indonesia Armed Forces applies the principle of peace as the priority; however, independence is of uttermost important. War is the last resort if diplomatic efforts are deadlocked and being waged to fight the other countries’ forces, which are threatening the Indonesia’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the safety of the nation
The Sudirman leadership is now become the philosophy of the TNI leadership development. His behavior and attitude is becomes an idol for most of Indonesian military officers. Meanwhile the AH Nasution thoughts “the Theory Territorial Warfare” and “the Fundamental of Guerrilla Warfare” is now implemented as the Indonesian military philosophy. This philosophy over-riding defense of the archipelago is summarily civilian-military defense, called “Total People’s Defense”- consisting of a three-stage war: 1) A short initial period in which invader would defeat a conventional Indonesian military, 2) A long period of territorial guerrilla war, 3) A final stage of expulsion- with military acting as a rallying point for defense from grass-roots village level upwards.
The doctrine relies on a close bond between villager and soldier to encourage the support of the entire population and enable the military to manage all war-related resources. The civilian population would provide logistical support, intelligence, and upkeep with some trained to join the guerrilla struggle. The armed forces regularly engage in large-scale community and rural development.
Indonesia military thought is influenced by its experiences. The Netherland and Japan had a significant role in the development of Indonesian military. The external military support has developed Indonesian Military theories in operational and tactical level.
General Sudirman is one of famous the Indonesia military figure. His leadership is now used as a standard in the process of TNI leadership development. General AH Nasution is one of the famous Indonesia Military thinker. He has put forward the importances of the unity between the military and the people as a main power.