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centercenter95000950004550034397952500266700 This research task is about researching the water quality of UMngeni River and whether or not this water is safe for people to use

February 1, 2019 0 Comment

centercenter95000950004550034397952500266700 This research task is about researching the water quality of UMngeni River and whether or not this water is safe for people to use, drink and do various tasks.

3700030000 This research task is about researching the water quality of UMngeni River and whether or not this water is safe for people to use, drink and do various tasks.

44000332613025002667004000070000455003439795690007377430370000455003439795350003742055Geography Research Task
Final Draft
3600028000Geography Research Task
Final Draft

34391606757035Lulama Khoza
Grade 12
2018
360000Lulama Khoza
Grade 12
2018

Contents
Introduction Page 3-4
Methodology Page 6-10
Data Representation Page 12-20
Data Analysis Page 22-24
Conclusion Page 26
Appendix Page 28
Bibliography Page 29
0314325Introduction
00Introduction

The UMngeni River is a river located in KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. It rises in the KZN Midlands and its mouth is found in Durban, north of Durban Harbour. The river is approximately 232 kilometres (144 mi) long with a catchment area of 4,432 square kilometres. The famous Howick Falls occur on this river, in the town of Howick.

There are four main dams that can be found on the uMngeni River, these being the Midmar Dam, Inanda Dam, Nagle Dam and Albert Falls Dam. CITATION Jan17 l 7177 (Peters, 2017). The town of Howick has been established on the UMngeni River. There are a vast number of informal settlements found along the river, one of which is Mpophomeni in Howick itself. There are also a large number of informal settlements that use the water directly out of the river, further downstream. This could lead to these communities being exposed to pollution and water borne diseases that include, but are not limited to:
Gastroenteritis: Gastroenteritis is a disease where there is a sudden onset of vomiting and watery diarrhoea often accompanied by moderate fever and sometimes stomach cramps. The incubation period is generally short (8 to 48 hours). The disease is sometimes referred to as “gastric flu” or “stomach bug”. Gastroenteritis can be caused by a wide variety of microorganisms. It is caused by drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food.

E. coli: E.coli in water is a strong indication of recent sewage or animal waste contamination. Sewage may contain many types of disease-causing organisms. E. coli comes from human and animal waste. During rainfalls, snow melts, or other types of precipitation, E. coli may be washed into creeks, rivers, streams, lakes, or groundwater. When these waters are used as sources of drinking water and the water is not treated or inadequately treated, E. coli may end up in the drinking water. This causes severe bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps.

Cholera: Cholera is a disease where diarrhoea and vomiting is common. The diarrhoea and vomiting can lead to severe dehydration, which could prove fatal. Cholera is transmitted by a person ingesting contaminated water or food infected by the toxic strain of the bacterium called Vibrio cholera. The disease is excreted by infected individuals through saline (a salt and water solution), warm and alkaline water (pH has to be higher than 7). CITATION Unk181 l 7177 (Unknown, 2018)Aim: The aim of this research project is to find out whether water quality in uMngeni River is managed correctly and if this effects the people around or living by the uMngeni river.

Hypothesis: The hypothesis being investigated is whether human activities in and around the town of Howick, impact on the water quality of the uMngeni River. To investigate the hypothesis, three sites were chosen on the river at which the tests could be conducted. Site 1 was above Midmar dam and the town of Howick at (29°29’16.7″S, 30°09’27.3″E). Site 2 was above Howick Falls in the town of Howick (29°29’16.05″S, 30°14’25.83″E) and Site 3 was at Fish Jump Falls, below the town of Howick (29°29’44.48″S, 30°14’53.80″E). see Figure 1.

Location
Figure 1: Location of Site 1, 2 & 3 on the uMngeni River.

1428751280160Site 1
Petrus Stroom, Above Midmar
29°29’16.7″S
30°09’27.3″E
00Site 1
Petrus Stroom, Above Midmar
29°29’16.7″S
30°09’27.3″E
53530501623060Site 3
Fish Jump Falls (UVNR)
29°29’44.48″S
30°14’53.80″E
00Site 3
Fish Jump Falls (UVNR)
29°29’44.48″S
30°14’53.80″E
87630077533539243001413510Site 2
Above Howick Falls
29°29’16.05″S
30°14’25.83″E
00Site 2
Above Howick Falls
29°29’16.05″S
30°14’25.83″E
568642513373104762500842010
At each of the sites, the following tests were conducted.

This research is of value because if it can be determined that human activities have impacted, and how, on the water quality of the uMngeni River, action can be taken to warn people who use the water downstream. If the pollutants can be identified, action can be taken to reduce pollution levels.

Methodology
Methodology:
A methodology is when you describe the methods and ways in which you conducted your research. This should include, if relevant, the time and location in which you performed an experiment.

Using your senses:
Equipment:
A small bottle
In order to perform this experiment you need to:
Fill a small bottle up with water from the river
Smell the water and then look to see what colour the water is.
This experiment is repeated for the three sites and you record your data as you go along.

Riparian Health Audit:
In order to do this experiment, you look at a rating system that ranges from 0 – 5 and is dependent on the intensity and range of the impact. The impacts are rated as a percentage of change to the riparian system or coverage by the impacts.

What is recorded?
Exotic Vegetation: This is rated according to the abundance within the riparian zone. This includes gardens, crops and hedgerows.
Rubbish Dumping: This is rated according on the intensity and extent of coverage, which is recorded as a percentage, within the riparian zone and how it affects ecological health.

Bank Erosion: This is rated when it is caused by unusual circumstances and should be based on extent of covering.

Inundation: This looks at the flooding of the riparian zone through construction to obstruct water flow and results in habitat characteristics.
Flow Modification: This can either be an increase or decrease in flow or change in the natural seasonal flow.

Channel Modification: This rating should be based on how far along the bank is the assessment being reached.

Evidence of Deceased Water Quality: This rating is based on the impact and overall affect to riparian system.

Vegetation Removal: This rating should be based on the extent of removal and its impact.

Aquatic Biodiversity:
Equipment:
Plastic container to keep the creatures you find
Mini SASS Identifying chart
Hands-on Pond life book
Water Quality slide
Brush to remove creatures from rocks
Cups to collect creatures
Permanent maker pen
Net
In order to do this experiment you need to:
Pick up five to ten stones from the middle of the stream.

Using an old paintbrush, brush off the creatures from the side of the rock.
Put the creatures you collected into the tub and then put the creatures back into the water.
After this, collect water from amongst the plants, in the mud and swimming in the stream. For this experiment to be successful, you need to collect many creatures as possible.

After you have collected your creatures, use a Mini SASS score sheet, circle the group that the creature belongs to, total the scores, divide by the number of groups found and then calculate the Mini SASS Score.

Repeat these steps at all three sites.

Temperature:
Equipment:
Electronic field meter kit
In order to do this experiment you need to:
Start the electronic field meter by pressing the power button. The meter can be used for several studies like dissolved oxygen, air pressure, etc.
Press mode until the “C” on the screen shows and then press hold/set to confirm temperature unit.

Dip the probe in the water where you want to record the temperature
Read the temperature.
Be careful how you hold the probe as it is very sensitive.

Repeat for three sites.

Dissolved Oxygen:
Equipment:
Calculator
Electronic field meter kit
In order to do this experiment you need to:
Start the electronic field meter by pressing the power button. The meter can be used for several studies like dissolved oxygen, air pressure, etc.
Press mode until it says % on the screen up on the right.
Dip the probe where you want it in the water.
Do 10 measurements and then take the average which will be your result. (Add the 10 measurement scores and divide it by 10.)
Repeat at all three sites.

Nitrates:
Equipment:
Nitrate Strips.

Nitrate Colour Chart.

A 100ml bottle.

In order to do this experiment you need to:
Collect water from the river with the 100ml bottle.

Dip the nitrate strip into the sample of water for one second and then shake it to remove bubbles.

Wait for at least one minute and then compare the nitrate stick with the colour chart.

The colour chart must be read before 5 minutes or evaporation of the nitrate compounds may cause a blotchy colour change.
pH:
Equipment:
pH meter Pen Type.

In order to do this experiment you need to:
Remove the probe cover from the meter.

Rotate the transparent cap vertically to expose the electrode out.

Dip the electrode into the test solution and then press SET to power on the meter then stir it to get a stable reading.

The word “pH” should flash while the meter is in measurement mode and the screen will show pH and temperature and “pH” will stop flashing when the reading is stable.

Freeze the current reading by pressing hold and take the reading.

Finally press hold again to release the reading.

Clarity:
Equipment:
Clarity tube.

In order to do this experiment you need to:
Completely fill the clarity tube with river water.

Position the black magnet at 1.

While holding the tube in a horizontal position, look through the tube and move the black magnet until the point where you cannot see it anymore then read the number found on the side of the clarity tube.

314325215265Data Presentation
Data Presentation

Data Presentation:
Using Your Senses:
Figure 2: Results of Using Your Senses at Site 1 on the UMngeni River.

Describe the smell and colour:
Do you think this water is safe?
Are there any dead animals in the river (cats, dogs, frogs, fish, birds etc.)?
How far are the pit latrines, or soak pits from the edge of the river?
Are people washing or bathing in the river?
Is there any wastewater from household washing (Soap froth)?
Is there any factory effluent (Oil, froth, sludge)?
Is there any sewage contamination and animal faeces (Cloudy grey or green slime)?
No. No. Far. No. No. No. No. No.

Figure 3: Picture of Site 1.

Describe the smell and colour:
Do you think this water is safe?
Are there any dead animals in the river (cats, dogs, frogs, fish, birds etc.)?
How far are the pit latrines, or soak pits from the edge of the river?
Are people washing or bathing in the river?
Is there any wastewater from household washing (Soap froth)?
Is there any factory effluent (Oil, froth, sludge)?
Is there any sewage contamination and animal faeces (Cloudy grey or green slime)?
Mouldy, earthy algae smell and murky water.

No.

No. 500m -700m Yes. No. No. Yes.

Figure 4: Results of Using Your Senses at Site 2 on the UMngeni River.

Figure 5: Picture of Site 2.

Figure 6: Results of Using Your Senses at Site 3 on the UMngeni River.

Describe the smell and colour:
Do you think this water is safe?
Are there any dead animals in the river (cats, dogs, frogs, fish, birds etc.)?
How far are the pit latrines, or soak pits from the edge of the river?
Are people washing or bathing in the river?
Is there any wastewater from household washing (Soap froth)?
Is there any factory effluent (Oil, froth, sludge)?
Is there any sewage contamination and animal faeces (Cloudy grey or green slime)?
Sewage smell and green colored water, almost murky.

No. No. Far. No. Yes, 1km away. Yes, there is sludge. Yes.

Figure 7: Picture of Site 3.

Riparian Health Audit:
Figure 8: Riparian Health Audit.

Site Name Exotic Vegetation Rubbish Dumping Bank Erosion Inundation Flow Modification Channel Modification Evidence of Deceased Water Quality Vegetation Removal Total Score (sum of impacts)
1 0,5 0,5 0 0,5 0,5 (Bridge) 0,5 1 0 3,5÷8 = 10%
2 3 4 0,5 0,5 1,5 1 3 0 13,5÷8
= 10%
3 1 2 0 0 (No constructions) 0 (Natural) 0 3.5 0 6.5÷8 = 10%
Aquatic Biodiversity:
Figure 9: Mini SASS Score Sheet for Site 1 on the UMngeni River.

Groups Sensitivity Score
Flat Worms 3
Worms 2
Leeches 2
Crabs or Shrimps 6
Stoneflies 17
Minnow Mayflies 5
Other Mayflies 11
Damselflies 4
Dragonflies 6
Bugs or Beetles 5
Caddisflies 9
True Flies 2
Snails 4
Total Score 11
Number of Groups 2
Final Average
(Divide the total score by the number of groups to get your final score) 5,5
Figure 10: Mini SASS Score Sheet for Site 2 on the UMngeni River.

Groups Sensitivity Score
Flat Worms 3
Worms 2
Leeches 2
Crabs or Shrimps 6
Stoneflies 17
Minnow Mayflies 5
Other Mayflies 11
Damselflies 4
Dragonflies 6
Bugs or Beetles 5
Caddisflies 9
True Flies 2
Snails 4
Total Score 18
Number of Groups 3
Final Average
(Divide the total score by the number of groups to get your final score) 6
Figure 11: Picture of Mini SASS for Site 2.

Figure 12: Mini SASS Score Sheet of Site 3 on the UMngeni River.

Groups Sensitivity Score
Flat Worms 3
Worms 2
Leeches 2
Crabs or Shrimps 6
Stoneflies 17
Minnow Mayflies 5
Other Mayflies 11
Damselflies 4
Dragonflies 6
Bugs or Beetles 5
Caddisflies 9
True Flies 2
Snails 4
Total Score 12
Number of Groups 4
Final Average
(Divide the total score by the number of groups to get your final score) 3
Figure 13: Picture of Mini SASS for Site 3.

Temperature:
Figure 14: Temperature (°C) at Site 1, 2 &3 on the UMngeni River.

Temperature (°C)
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average
Site 1 20,7°C 20,4°C 20,5°C 20,5°C
Site 2 22,2°C 22,5°C 22,7°C 22,4°C
Site 3 20,3°C 19,9°C 21,5°C 20,5°C
Figure 15: Picture of Electronic field meter kit.

Dissolved Oxygen (O²):
Figure 16: Dissolved Oxygen (O²) at Site 1, 2 &3 on the UMngeni River.

Site Dissolved Oxygen (O²)
1 140.97
2 86.22
3 155.62
pH:
Figure 17: pH levels at Site 1, 2 & 3 on the UMngeni River.

Site Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average
1 7,73 7,69 7,54 7,65
2 8,89 7,51 7,52 7,76
3 7,54 7,52 8,16 7,97
Site 1 has slight alkali water and seems to have a neutral pH with slight pollution and Site 2 indicates severe pollution according to the grading of the river pollution while Site 3 also has the same alkali water as Site 2 with slight pollution.

Nitrates (NO?):
Figure 18: Nitrates results on Site 1, 2 &3 on the UMngeni River.

Site Nitrates (mg/l)
1 11
2 1
3 1
Figure 19: Graph showing nitrates results on Site 1, 2 & 3 on the UMngeni River.

Figure 20: Picture of Nitrates.

Clarity:
Figure 21: Clarity results on Site 1, 2 & 3 on the UMngeni River.

Site Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average
1 28, 5 30 31 29,8
2 53 78 47 59,3
3 59 64 60 61
Site 1 is heavily polluted and Site 2 is very polluted while Site 3 is slightly less polluted.

Figure 22: Graph showing Clarity on Site 1, 2 & 3 on the UMngeni River.

1362075209550Analysis
Analysis

Data Analysis:
Using Your Senses:
Site 1: Site 1 had less pollution than the other two sites. The water was murky brown but it smelled of manure unlike the other two sites. There was no visible pollution in the water or any dead animals. There were small creatures. See figure 2.

Site 2: Site 2 had much more pollution than site 1 and site 3 with much more mouldy and algae-like water with bits of garbage due to being close to informal settlements. There was also sewage contamination and animal faeces causing the water to have green slime in some areas. See figure 5.
Site 3: Site 3 had a sewage smell with green, murky water. There was soap froth from 1km away and there was also sludge. There was less pollution at this site than the other sites.

Riparian Health Audit:
Site 1: Site 1 has minor impact on the city of Howick. Exotic vegetation has no impact within the riparian zone and well as rubbish dumping, inundation, flow modification, vegetation removal and channel modification while bank erosion has no impact and evidence of deceased water quality is minor. See figure 8.

Site 2: Site 2 has minor impact on the city of Howick. Exotic vegetation has a large impact while rubbish dumping has a serious impact on the riparian zone. Bank erosion, inundation, flow modification and channel modification has minor impact. Evidence of deceased water quality has a large impact and vegetation removal has no impact.

Site 3: Site 3 has minor impact on the city of Howick. Exotic vegetation has minor impact while rubbish dumping has moderate impact. Bank erosion, inundation, flow modification, channel modification and vegetation removal have no impact while evidence of deceased water quality has a serious impact.

Aquatic Biodiversity:
Site 1: Site 1 tells us that there are not much of creatures in this area and more or less, the same type of creature is in one area. This area is in a fair condition. See figure 9.

Site 2: Sit 2 tells us that there is somewhat a variety but not much around the site and in the water. This indicates that the area is in poor condition.

Site 3: Site 3 tells us there are a variety of creatures although the creatures are lacking. This indicates that the area is in a very poor condition.

Temperature:
Site 1: Site 1 has an average temperature of 20,5°C which means some of the creatures living there can survive this temperature.

Site 2: Site 2 has an average temperature of 22,4°C which means some of the creatures living there can survive this temperature.

Site 3: Site 3 has an average temperature of 20,5°C which means some of the creatures living there can survive this temperature.

Dissolved Oxygen:
Site 1: Site 1 shows that there is lots of dissolved oxygen indicating that the aquatic life is in a harmful situation which is harmful to aquatic life. CITATION Why18 l 7177 (Why Dissolved Oxygen is Important). See figure 16.

Site 2: Site 2 shows that there is not much bacteria as the measurements indicate that the dissolved oxygen is above 80% meaning it is in good condition.

Site 3: A Site 3 show that there is lots of dissolved oxygen indicating that the aquatic life is in a harmful situation which is harmful to aquatic life.Nitrates:
Site 1: Site 1 shows us that nitrate count is at a natural level. See Figure 18.

Site 2: Site 2 shows us that nitrate count is at a natural level.

Site 3: Site 3 shows us that nitrate count is at a natural level.

pH:
Site 1: Site 1 tells us that water quality is neutral, it is neither acidic nor alkaline and has less of a chance to cause harm to the people who drink or collect water from there. See Figure 17.

Site 2: Site 2 tells us that the water is slightly above neutral, going over to alkaline. This water is still good as it is not highly alkaline as water that has a high pH can lead to problems when consuming it, leading to metabolic alkalosis which can lead to a decrease in free calcium in the body which can have problems for bone health. CITATION Ren17 l 7177 (Nagelberg, 2017).

Site 3: Site 3 tells us that the water is alkaline and it is able to be drunk and to be used by the people of Howick.

Clarity:
Site 1: Site 1 shows that there is severe pollution in the river.

Site 2: Site 2 shows us that there is heavy pollution in the river.

Site 3: Site 3 shows us that pollution is present within the river.

110490017780Conclusion
Conclusion

Conclusion:
This research task was made to show whether human activities in and around Howick impact on the water quality of the uMngeni River. Three sites were visited and during these visits, there were limitations to each experiment. One of the limitations was that there was rain on the first night which could have affected Site 2 when we went the next day. Another limitation could be that the tests/experiments were not done over a long period of time but rather three days. This could also mean that the results recorded were not as accurate as they should have been. Another example could be that water quality changed once a sample had been taken causing recordings to not be as accurate as they should be. This research task showed that human activities affect the town of Howick and that these impacts should be managed in order to maintain water quality.

Appendix
Question 1:
These experiments are measured using things like probes or scoping out the water with a bottle/tub. The turbidity results obtained tell us that most of the sites are polluted which affect stream health because it can impact on the living creatures in the river. The water quality is also quite low. Biodiversity tells us that there is little living creatures in most of these sites because of the impacted water. The temperature tells us that the living creatures are able to withstand the temperatures in the river.
Question 2:
Water quality impacts biodiversity in a river by having higher temperatures in water which hold less oxygen and this causes an impact because some insects need more oxygen to keep pace with their needs as the temperatures increase. Warmer water is also used in the breakdown of pollution which can cause a problem on the biodiversity. CITATION Unk162 l 7177 (Unknown, Water pollution makes river biodiversity more vulnerable to climate warming, 2016).

Question 3:
If pollution comes from a pipe discharge from a single location, this is known as point-source pollution which can include an oil spill from a tanker. If pollution comes from different sources, which is the most common type of pollution, is known as nonpoint-source pollution. Pollution that affects hundreds and thousands of miles away, this is known as transboundary pollution. CITATION Chr17 l 7177 (Woodford, 2017). These types of pollutions can have an impact on human health by that, some of these pollutions can cause diseases that could not be known on how to cure and impact human health severely.

Bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY Hearn, M. (n.d.). 7 Basic Types of Water Pollution. Retrieved January 24, 2018, from Water Benefits Health: http://www.waterbenefitshealth.com/types-of-water-pollution.html
Human Impacts on Biodiversity. (n.d.). Retrieved January 25, 2018, from Ecology and Biodiversity: Biodiversity: http://www.orangesenqurak.com/river/ecology+biodiversity/biodiversity/Human+Impacts+on+Biodiversity.aspx?print=1
Nagelberg, R. G. (2017, July 13). Alkaline Water: Benefits and Risks. Retrieved January 27, 2018, from HealthLine: https://www.healthline.com/health/food-nutrition/alkaline-water-benefits-risks#benefits
Peters, J. (2017, September 9). Umgeni River. Retrieved November 29, 2017, from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umgeni_River
Unknown. (2016, March 3). Water pollution makes river biodiversity more vulnerable to climate warming. Retrieved July 6, 2018, from The Fresh Water Blog: https://freshwaterblog.net/2016/03/03/water-pollution-increases-makes-river-biodiversity-more-vulnerable-to-climate-warming/
Unknown. (2018). Waterborne Diseases Factsheet. Retrieved June 28, 2018, from Water Wise: http://www.waterwise.co.za/site/water/diseases/waterborne.html
WESSA. (2017, November 29). Water Quality IRP. Howick, KwaZulu – Natal, South Africa.

Why Dissolved Oxygen is Important. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2018, from Lenntech: https://www.lenntech.com/why_the_oxygen_dissolved_is_important.htm
Woodford, C. (2017, June 4). What are the main types of water pollution? Retrieved July 12, 2018, from Water pollution: an introduction: https://www.explainthatstuff.com/waterpollution.html