BUSE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NAME
BUSE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
NAME : SIMBARASHE.P
SURNAME : MUZONGONDI
REGISTRATION NUMBER : B1749621
LEVEL : 1.2
COURSE CODE : PC004
COURSE NAME : INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH
The “A,B,C,D,E,F,G” abstinence ,be Faithfull, condom use, delay sexual dept. ,early treatment, frank discussion and getting tested is the model of HIV prevention for generalised epidemics “risk elimination”. These strategies recognised that HIV transmission is a social event that occurs between two people, both of whom need to participate in the change. Strategies working with individual and society at large. This applies that HIV prevention need not to be rocket science as long as it is willing to deal with the behaviour, people need to response to the increase sense of personal safety that comes as the essay below seeks.
Sexual abstinence “zero grazing” implies the deliberate and voluntary non-engagement in sexual intercourse by adolescents. It is an important pillar for HIV prevention by applying religious beliefs and parental efforts on understand standing adolescent development and discussing sexual behaviours are important in enhancing sexual abstinence for adolescents. Encouraging adolescents to participate in religious activities to enhance sexual abstinence to prevent and control HIV transmission, hence they will spend most of time doing religious duties rather than exposed to tempting environment. Kirby(2007)documented that adolescents from strong religious back ground in the United States are less likely to be sexually active than are their peers from less religious environments. The bible even support holiness, not having sex before marriage take the body as the holy temple and must remain clean. Abstinence for sexual intercourse is therefor, the primary prevention weapon among unmarried, adolescents and school going ones
Behavioural change has been responsible for the prevention success to date. Strategies to modify behaviours need to remain a main priority of HIV prevention. This strategy attempt through delay onset of first intercourse, decrease number of sexual partners, improving attitude towards safer sexual practise, reducing use of sex workers. Understanding sexual behaviours of social environment where variety of factors influence helps to strategies proper way of applying ways of prevention of HIV transmission. Biddlecom et al, (2007) argues that though adolescents may become victims of sexual violence and forced sex mostly they engaged in sexual activities voluntarily. The strategy implies that HIV prevention need not to be rocket science as long as it is willing to deal with behaviour. Both biomedical and behavioural health disciplines have made important contributions to the knowledge base for STD prevention (Sparling and Aral, 1991). Hence behavioural interventions should be mutual fidelity within (monogamous or polygamous unions), which when practised between HIV –negative partners completely eliminate the risk of sexual transmission of HIV.
Condoms are physical barriers that can reduce the risk of a sexual exposure to HIV because they are made of materials that do not allow HIV to pass through them. This makes condoms a highly effective strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission when used consistently and correctly. This strategies attempt through using a condom for the entire act of sex, from start to end. When used correctly and consistently (during every act of intercourse), condoms are highly effectively against bacterial and viral STDs including HIV infection (Cates and Stone, 1992; Roper et al., 1993; Weller, 1993). It is important to remind clients of the correct use of condoms so they can prevent breakage, slippage and leakage during sex, and maximize condom effectiveness. Hulton et al (2007) argues that, men and women in in their teen are at increased risk of HIV infection because they often engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse. Thus people who are sexually active and high risk of exposure to HIV, the first priority should be to promote consistent condom use. Applying free male circumcision will also help in the preventing the HIV transmission, this will enhance in number of male getting circumcised thus reducing the risk. Hence strategies condom use and applying proper use of it since it reduces but do not eliminate the risk one should take an additional account of getting circumcised.
Delayed initiation of intercourse is associated with reductions in the likelihood of some risky behaviours, but not necessarily with the kinds of physical and emotional health benefits that proponents of abstinence. Applying good educational programs emphasise delaying initiation of sexual intercourse (sexual debut) as the safest choice for young people postpone the initiation of some or all sexual activity, for a certain period of time will reducing the transmission. Discuss the benefits of delaying sexual intercourse including factors such as taking the time to get knowing what they expect out of a sexual experience, and having a chance to consider contraceptive to know your partner, being able to communicate about where the relationship is going. Men who had started having sex late considered their relationships more solid than did their counterparts who had started at a normative age. Hence initiation of sexual intercourse at late stages prevent and control HIV
Strategies early treatment of HIV by providing early antiretroviral drugs treatment for recently infected HIV patients and their uninfected sexual partners. This might be cost effective way to help patients stay health and prevent transmission of HIV. Applying free blood or body fluids test, encourage people and educate them about the importance of knowing their status helps to avoid the risk. This led to a shift towards earlier treatment at higher CD4 counts. Hence if one having the virus, finding out quickly means one can start treatment to help long live and full life. Thus taking early treatment after tested as a major priority and its precaution so that one don’t pass HIV to other.
Frank discussion of HIV has become a core element in a holistic model of heath care, in which psychological issues are recognised as integral to patient’s management. This strategy attempt though counselling programs which deal and support prevention of HIV transmission and the support of those affected directly and indirectly by HIV. It is vital that HIV counselling should have these dual aims because the spread of HIV can be prevented by change in behaviour. One to one prevention counselling has particular contribution in that it enable and a priority of frank discussion of sensitive aspects of a patient’s life. Counsellors must be professional, and counselling can both minimise morbidity and reduce its occurrence. All counsellors in this field should have formal counselling training and receive regular clinical supervision as part of adherence to good standards of clinical practice.
Getting real by getting tested is the first step in maintaining a healthy life and reducing the spread of HIV. This applies for everyone to get tested and knowing their status if one is HIV positive it’s better to know as early as possible so that one can get treatment and reduce the risk. Hence People who get tested and learn they are HIV-negative can also make decisions about sex, drug use, and health care that can protect from HIV. For people at very high risk for HIV, taking daily HIV medicine called pre-exposure prophylaxis can prevent HIV infection by more than 90%.
In resolution of the above analysis one is bond to say it holds water, taking the strategic approach and its application as the way of preventing the spread of HIV. These strategies depend on personal safety it’s a matter of making choices
Biddlecom, A. E., Laura H, Susheela S, Akinrinola B, and Leila D. (2007). Protecting the Next Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Learning from Adolescents to Prevent HIV and Unintended Pregnancy. New York: Guttmacher Institute.
Kirby, D. (2007). Sexual Risk and Protective Factors: Factors Affecting Teen Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, Childbearing And Sexually Transmitted Disease: Which Are Important? Which Can You Change?. Retrieved from http://recapp.etr.org/recapp/documents/theories/RiskProtectiveFactors200712.pdf
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD001230. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001230.pub2.
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Sparling PF, Aral SO. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach to prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. In: Wasserheit JN, Aral SO, Holmes KK, Hitchcock PJ, eds. Research issues in human behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in the AIDS era. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology, 1991:1-8
Sandfort TGM et al., Long-term health correlates of timing of sexual debut: results from a national US study, American Journal of Public Health, 2008, 98(1):155–161
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Hulton, L. A., Cullen, R. ; Khalokho, W. S. (2000). Perceptions of the risks of sexual activities and their consequences among the Ugandan adolescents.Department of social statistics,University of Southampton ,Highfield,UK