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A PROJECT REPORT ON PADDY TRANSPLANTER Submitted by TEAM ID

March 6, 2019 0 Comment

A PROJECT REPORT ON
PADDY TRANSPLANTER
Submitted by
TEAM ID: 4874
Nirav Radadiya 140240119138
Ravi Jiyani 140240119512
Zalak Radadiya 150243119040
Ketul Patel 150243119536
Guided by
Prof. Alpesh dodiya
In fulfilment for the award of the degree
Of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING775411358445

HASMUKH GOSWAMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad
2017-2018
Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad
HASMUKH GOSWAMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,
Mechanical Engineering
2018
CERTIFICATE
Date :-
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PADDY TRANSPLANTER” has been carried out by Nirav Radadiya (140240119038), Ravi Jiyani (140240119512), Zalak Radadiya (150243119040), Ketul Patel (150243119536) under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering (7th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2016.

Internal Guide: Prof. Alpesh Dodiya Head of Dept.: Prof. Amit Monpurwala
Asst. Professor, ME Dept. Head, ME Dept.

HGCE, Vahelal HGCE, Vahelal
Sign of External Examiner
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my heartfelt appreciation to all those who have contributed to this project, Both explicitly and implicitly, without the cooperation of whom, it would not have been Possible to complete this project. This final year project has been carried out at the Department of Mechanical, Gujarat Technological University.
I would like to express my sincere thanks to my external guide whose guidance and encouragement is invaluable. It has been an honor and memorable experience working with him.

I would also like to thank my internal guide Prof. Alpesh Dodiya, Head of ME Department, Prof. Amit Monpurwala and the faculty members of HGCE who had helped me directly or indirectly in my project work.
I thank my parents for standing behind me all the time and I thank my friends for their Advice, guidance and help. I thank God for all his blessings.
Nirav Radadiya 140240119538
Ravi Jiyani 140240119512
Zalak Radadiya 150243119040
Ketul Patel 150243119536
ABSTRACT
Agriculture is the most important sector of Indian economy. Rice being the major crop cultivated in India, a huge amount of workforce is engaged in rice production. The common practice of rice cultivation is manual transplanting of seedlings. Besides being costly and time consuming. it is very labour intensive task. To mechanize the transplanting system several attempts have been made to design and fabricate transplanting machines. Due to the high price of an automated paddy transplanter it becomes impossible for a small scale farmer to purchase a non-subsidized automated paddy transplanter. An attempt has been made to fabricate a manual paddy transplanter which is effective as well as cheap. Selection of an efficient power transmission system and a suitable mechanism to drive the planting claw is given due consideration in its design. The objective of this project is to design a paddy transplanting mechanism to transplant rice seedlings by small scale farmers in the country.

LIST OF FIGURE AND TABLE
FIGURE NO. FIGURE NAME PAGE NO.

FIGURE1.1 MANUAL TRANSPLANTING 9
FIGURE1.2 SELF-PROPELLED TRANSPLANTER 11
FIGURE1.3 TRACTOR OR ANIMAL MOUNTED RICE TRANSPLANTER 12
FIGURE3.1 FOUR BAR LINKAGE 16
FIGURE3.2 DIAGRAM OF ARM MOTION 17
FIGURE5.1 CRANK 22
FIGURE5.2 LEVER 22
FIGURE5.3 COUPLER WITH EXTENSION 23
FIGURE5.4 ASSEMBLY OF FOUR BAR LINKAGE 23
FIGURE5.5 TRAY 24
FIGURE5.6 FORK 24
FIGURE5.7 CHAIN 25
FIGURE5.8 SPROCKETS 26
FIGURE5.9 SHAFT 26
FIGURE5.10 BEARING 27
FIGURE5.11 FRAME 27
FIGURE7.1 ASSEMBLY DRAWING 29
TABLE6.1 MATERIAL 28
CONTENTS

CHAPTER
NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

CERTIFICATE II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT III
ABSTRACT IV
LIST OF FIGURE AND TABLE V
CONTENTS VI
1 INTRODUCTION 8
1.1 MATHODS OF ESTABLISHMENT 8
1.1.1 DIRECT SEEDING 8
1.1.2 TRANSPLATING 9
1.1.3 MACHINIZED TRANSPLANTING OF RICE 10
1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF PADDY TRANSPLATER 10
1.2.1 MANUALLY OPERATED TRANSPLATERS 10
1.2.2 SELF-PROPELLED TRANSPLANTER 11
1.2.3 TRACTOR OR MOUNTED RICE PLANTER 12
1.3 PROBLEM DEFINITION 13
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 14
2.1 RESEARCH PAPER 14
3 PRINCIPLE AND WORKING 16
4 CHRONOLOGICAL REPORT ON DESIGN CANVAS 18
4.1 AEIOU SUMMARY 18
4.2 IDEATION CANVAS 19
4.3 EMPATHY MAPING 20
4.4 PRODUCT DEVLOPMENT CANVAS 21
5 PROTOTYPE DESIGN 22
5.1 PARTS 22
6 MATERIAL 28
7 ASSEMBLY DRAWING 29
8 COST REPORT 30
9 DESIGN CALCULATION 31
10 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES 33
10.1 ADVANTAGES 33
10.2 LIMITATIONS 33
11 FUTURESCOPE AND CONCLUSION 34
REFERENCE 35

1:-Introduction
A rice transplanter is a specialized transplanter fitted to transplant rice seedlings onto paddy field. riding type and walking type are two type transplanter . East, Southeast, and South Asia in mainly used. Machine transplanting using rice transplanters requires considerably less time and labor than manual transplanting Rice transplanters were first developed in Japan in the 1960s, whereas the earliest attempt to mechanize rice transplanting dates back to late 19th century.

However, rice transplanters are considerably expensive for almost all Asian small-hold farmers. Rice transplanters are popular in industrialized countries where labor cost is high, for example in South koria. It is now also getting popularity in South Asian countries as in transplanting time labour crisis is in its pick.
METHODS OF ESTABLISHMENT
There are two methods used in India. One is direct showing/ seeding and transplanting.

Direct seeding
There are two types
Wet seeding
Dry seeding

Direct sowing / seeding can be done in two ways by manually or mechanically and also be subdivided in to two categories:
Row seeding
In this method seed put in land same distance. This will require planting guides to have uniform spacing.
Random seeding
In this methods between two seed distance not perfect. It is also known as broadcasting. This is the highly used method india.

1.1.2 Transplanting
In this method seed is sown in one place and the seedlings after they have grown a little are transplanted to another. Though manual transplanting uniform crop it is quite expensive and requires lot of labour. Planting labourers can suffer from back problem. Difficultly of availability of worker at peak periods to plant on time. Efficient working of self-propelled rice transplanter requires a suitable puddled soil condition, optimum depth of puddling, degree of puddling and soil strength of puddled field. Transplanting will reduce the ability to withstand moisture stress. It is recommended to transplant when land preparation is not up to standard and water management is poor. The spacing of transplanted paddy varies with the age of the variety. Minimum age of a seedling for transplanting would be about 12 -14 days

1.1.3 Mechanized Transplanting of rice
Mechanized transplanting requires techniques are different from hand transplanting. Machine transplanting of rice is the process of transplanting young rice seedling, in this transplanting saves labour and time. Manual transplanting practice,8-12 labours are required to transplant one acre. However, if a self-propelled rice transplanter is used, three people can transplant up to four acres in a day. The mechanized the transplanting system have been made to design and fabrication of machine.

CLASSIFICATION OF PADDY TRANSPLANTER CURRENTLY USED
? Manual transplanter
? Self-propelled transplanter
? Animal drawn transplanter
? Tractor mounted transplanter
1.2.1 MANUALLY OPERATED TRANSPLANTERS
It is driven by men power. This machines are moved through small power and Operated. A manual rice transplanter is a specialized is a machine fitted with a transplanter mechanism. It is in order to the transplant rice seedlings onto paddy field and uniform. Many type machines are exist in the world. This machine are design for smallest and largest usage of rice transplanting. Machine shown in the figure. The machine part is tray, fork, handle and skids. Multiple pickup forks that pick up a seedling from mat type nursery on the seedling tray and put the seedling into the earth, as if the seedling were taken between human fingers. Machine type rice transplanters take less time and labor than manual transplanting.

1.2.2. SELF-PROPELLED TRANSPLANTER
Self –propelled transplanter are driven by engine. These types of transplanters are capable to carry operators on the machine. A single wheel driven transplanter is shown in the Figure. It is fitted with diesel engine. The machine transplants seedlings from mat type nursery in eight rows in a single pass engine through V -belt, cone clutch and gearbox. A propeller shaft from the gearbox provides power to the transplanting mechanism mounted over the float. The float facilitates the transplanter to slide over the puddled surface.

The tray containing mat type nursery for 8 rows is moved sideways by a scroll shaft mechanism. There are two type of engine operated transplanter exist walking behind and riding on machine. Engine operated transplanter manufacturing by India, Japan, China, South Korea and other industrial countries

Figure 1.2 SELF-PROPELLED TRANSPLANTE
Type : single wheel driven
Length (mm) : 2410
Width (mm) : 2130
Height (mm) : 1300
Engine (hp ) : 4.0,
Air cooled diesel Numbers of rows : 8
Row spacing (mm) : 238
Hill-to-hill spacing (mm) : 100 – 200
Working speed (km/h) : 1.5-2.0
Speed of travel on road (km/h) : 8.24
Field capacity (ha/h) : 0.13 – 0.20
Weight (kg) : 320
1.2.3 TRACTOR OR ANIMAL MOUNTED RICE PLANTER

Figure 1.3 TRACTOR OR ANIMAL MOUNTED RICE PLANTER
In this type of transplanter animals such as oxen and tractor are used to draw the transplanter. Multiple rows of seedlings can be transplanted with variable depth and spacing.This type of transplanter is powered by a tractor engine of 25 h powers via power take-up shaft connected to arrangement of linking mechanism of pulley/belt. Has a capacity of transplanting 6-10 rows width variable width in-between rows.

1.3 Problem Definition
Automated paddy transplanter is costlier. Transplanting is tedious and time-consuming (up to 30 man days/ha). Planting laborers can suffer from back problems (health risk). Maintenance of automated paddy transplanter is very higher. Difficult to get enough labor at peak periods to plant on time.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Literature review is one of the scope studies. Its help in early work in project, differents literature review study have been done by books and printed online conference articles were the main source in the project. In the literature review include history, result and test.
2.1 RESEARCH PAPER
Rajib Bhowmik, Anindita Sharma, Hirakjyoti Kalita, Jabin Sultana, Juena Gogoi 1* publish in journal Vol.6, No.4, July-August 2016 in this paper The working of the paddy transplanter is found to be satisfactory. The selection of four bar mechanism turns out to be effective and simple to fabricate. The cost of fabricating the paddy transplanter is way cheaper than that of an automated paddy transplanter and it is easy to operate.

Ms. Kirti S. Desai2* publish in journal 2012 The performance of developed two row self propelled paddy transplanter was satisfactory. The required plant population (100/m2) was maintained by the newly developed machine. The labour requirement for transplanting operation was reduced. Newly developed two row paddy transplanter is a solution for mechanized transplanting in the fragmented hilly region of Konkan.

Tawanda Mushiri, Brighton Gutsa, Charles Mbohwa3* publish in journal April 11-13, 2017 A manual lever mechanism should be incorporated which can be used to adjust the plant spacing and planting depth during operation. Lighter material like graphite or carbon fibre can be used to replace the alloy steel of the transplanting fingers. Redesign of the transplanting arm. Mechanical Transplanting is more efficient than Manual Transplanting.

Ahire Pooja Kakaji, Bhoir Vinita Dilip, Patil Shraddha Ashok, Main Mayuri Ramchandra, Dr. Atul D Dhale4* publish in journal 2017 As we studied the manually operated rice transplanter with simple mechanism and low maintenance which is affordable for every farmers. we try to reduce cost of this machine which is most important as same machine is available in number of countries in the world but cost of the machine keep away farmers from its benefits. Hence we are going to use simple Linkage mechanism which reduces the farmer efforts and it is easy to handle.

PROF. S. K. PAWAR, MISHRA AKASH ARVIND, MODI AKSHAY ANIL, PRASAD ALOKKUMAR AJAY, TARANGE RAMESHWAR ANUDAS5* publish in journal NOV 16 TO OCT 17 In this study it was concluded that high labour demand during the peak periods adversely affects the timeliness of operation. Mechanization not only changes the structure of labour in agriculture, but also influences the nature of the workload. Hence there is need for designing and developing a rice transplanter for the small scale farmers who are mostly affected by the unwanted situations or condition prevailing in our country can help them to cultivate rice effectively and efficiently with less health related issues. Transplanter helps to acquire lesser cost of production with higher yield and production moreover the quality of produced rice is also good.

PRINCIPLE AND WORKING
Operator has move with the transplanter and give power the machine by hand. Manually operated transplaner are provide by man.

CRANK – It can rotate a full 360?
LEVER – It can rotate through a limited range of angle
COUPLER – It connect the crank and lever
FIXED FRAME – It is fixed part of four bar linkage

Figure 3.1 four bar linkage
Paddy seedlings are kept in the tray and allowed to flow down under gravity. The fork which is attached to coupler picks up the seedlings from the tray which are kept in horizontal position. The motion of the shaft is given by hand using chain and sprocket arrangement. Here, in every cycle the fork comes back to its original position so that it can repeat the process. The machine moves backward to the next location for planting. Path of motion of the fork relative to the ground as shown in figure.

28404431722120
Figure 3.2 Diagram of arm motion
CHRONOLOGICAL REPORT ON DESIGN CANVAS
right525780AEIOU SUMMERY

4.2 IDEATION CANVAS

right4191004.3 EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANCAS
right207645
5. PROTOTYPE DESIGN
5.1 PARTS
1. CRANK :
Center distance: 50 mm
Thickness: 5 mm

Figure 5.1 Crank
2. Lever :
Center distance: 115 mm
Thickness: 5 mm

Figure 5.2 Lever
3. COUPLER WITH EXTENSION (FORK):
COUPLER: Center distance: 70 mm
Thickness: 5 mm
EXTENSION LENGTH: 330 mm
EXTENSION ANGLE: 120?

Figure 5.3 Coupler With Extension
4. ASSEMBLY OF FOUR BAR LINKAGE:

Figure 5.4 Assembly of Four Bar Linkage
5. TRAY :
Tray is used to keep the paddy seedlings on the transplanter. Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces.

Dimension of tray :
Length of sheet metal = 53.5cm
Breadth of sheet metal = 26 cm
Thickness of sheet metal = 0.1cm

Figure 5.5 Tray
6. FORK:
Fork is used to pick up the paddy seedling from tray and to keep it on skid. There are two forks attached to shaft and distance in between two fork is 30cm.The motion to fork is giving by shaft. Total length of fork is 33cm

Figure 5.6 Fork
7. CHAINS:
The chains are used to transmit the power from hand driving wheel to the shaft in which forks are attached and it is also to transmit the power to the four bar mechanism
Total length of chain: 260 cm

Figure 5.7 Chains
8. SPROCKETS:
We use Sprockets for hand driving wheel and in the shaft for rotating the fork and four bar mechanism.

Calculation of Speed of Rotation
Z1=No. of teeth on sprocket pinion
N1=Speed of rotation of pinion
Z2=No. of teeth on sprocket wheel
N2=Speed of rotation of wheel
Speed of wheel driven by hand N2=25 rpm (optimum value)
No. of teeth in sprocket wheel Z2=44
No. of teeth in sprocket pinion Z1=18
Transmission Ratio N1/N2= Z2/Z1
Z2/Z1 = 44/18
= 2.44
Therefore,
N1 = 2.44 x 25
Speed of rotation of pinion = 61 rpm

Figure 5.8 Sprockets
9. SHAFT:
Shaft is a revolving rod that transmits motion or power. Here, the one shaft contains forks and another shaft contains four bar linkage and power is taken from the hand driven wheel by chains and sprockets.
Shaft dimension:
Length of the shaft = 12.7cm (it is space required between the paddy seedlings)
Diameter of shaft = 4 cm

Figure 5.9 Shaft
10. BEARINGS:
The word “bearing” incorporates the meaning of “to bear,” in the sense of “to support,” and “to carry a burden.” This refers to the fact that bearings support and carry the burden of revolving axles. Bearings are used to support a rotating shaft and provide a frictionless rotational motion of shaft.

Figure 5.10 Bearings
11. FRAME STRUCTURE:
Frame structure supports various parts of paddy transplanter like tray, four-bar linkage, shaft, bearings and chain-sprockets arrangement. Frame structure made by hollow rectangular M.S. pipes.

Figure 5.11 Frame
6. MATERIAL

SR NO. COMPONENT NO. OF UNITS MATERIAL USED
1 FRAME 1 MILD STEEL
2 SHAFT 1 MILD STEEL
3 CHAIN 1 CAST IRON
4 SPROCKET 2 MILD STEEL
5 BEARINGS 3 STAINLESS STEEL
6 RIVETS 4 MILD STEEL
7 BOLTS & NUTS 5 MILD STEEL
8 FOUR BAR LINKAGE 2 MILD STEEL
9 HANDLE 1 MILD STEEL
Table6.1 Material
7. ASSEMBLY DRAWING
5461023685500Figure 7.1 Assembly Drawing
8. Cost Report
Name Of Parts Cost Cast Iron rectangular pipe {11kg} 450 Metal sheet {2 kg} 100 Bearing Pedestal {2 piece} 440 Chain 120 Spoket 200 Nut and bolt 70 Per person income in one day {2 men} 600 Shaft 50 Machining cost 1000 Color 80 3110+30% profit Total cost
4043 Final product cost
9. Design Calculation
1. Speed ratio
I=n1n2=z2z1n1=speed for driving rpm
n2=speed for driven rpm
z1=numbers of teeth for driving
z2=number of teeth for driven
for smooth operation at moderate and high speed we take i=2.5 and we take n2=25 rpm from research paper.

2.5=n125 n1=62.5 rpm
minimum number of teeth for driven pinion z1=18
2.5=z218 z2=45
2. Centre Distance (a):-
C=p*Cp
Where P=pitch
Cp=approximate center distance in pitches (30 to 50)
110=p*50
p=2.2 cm
a= 40p
Ln= 2(a/p)+ (Z1 + Z2/2) +(Z2 – Z1/2?)2× (p/a)
=2(88/2.2)+ (18+45/2)+(45-18/2?)2×(2.2/88)
Ln=122 cm
3. Linear velocity of Chain: – V= Z1× p× n160 ×10?3=18×2.2×62.560×10^3=0.04125 m/s
4. Power transmitted by chain
On the basis of breaking load P =Wb ×Vn ×Ks
Where,
Wb = Breaking load in Newtons
V= velocity of chain in m/s
n = factor of safety
Ks = service factor Factor of safety= ? = Wb/W
K1 = Load factor, K2= Lubrication factor, K3 = Rating factor
P= (28900*0.041)/1*1.8
=0.65827 kw
10. ADVANTAGES & DIS-ADVANTAGES OF HAND CRANKED PADDY TRANSPLANTER
10.1 ADVANTAGES
Efficient use of resources by saving on labour, cost saving, water saving.

Higher productivity compared to traditional methods.

Improving soil health through eliminating puddling.

Generates employment and alternate sources of income for rural youth through custom services on nursery raising and mechanical transplanting.

10.2 LIMITATIONS
Planting laborers can suffer from back problems (health risk)
Difficult to get enough labor at peak periods to plant on time
Transplanting is tedious and time-consuming (up to 30 man days/ha)
Low plant density with contract transplanting on area basis lowers yields

11. FUTURESCOPE AND CONCLUSION
11.1 FUTURE SCOPE
This project in the future can come across many changes like an automatic or semi-automatic system with motor which runs at constant speed attached to shaft instead of giving power by hand.

By providing proper attachment, equal pitch distance of paddy plants can be possible.

The machine used to plant 2 rows simultaneously. Number of rows of plants can be increase by
attach more no. of forks on main shaft
11.2 CONCLUSION
The paddy seedling transplanting machine worked satisfactorily. But, there were some improvements to be done before introducing to the farmers. The machine is driven by man power but engine can be coupled to enhance the performances. Machine can be developed to transplant several rows simultaneously. Weight of the machine should be reduced by removing extra components used and by using low weight materials.

REFERENCES
1* IRACST – Engineering Science and Technology: An International Journal (ESTIJ), ISSN: 2250-3498
2* Development And Performance Testing Of Two Row Paddy Transplanter in year 2012
3* Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Rabat, Morocco, April 11-13, 2017
4* Development of Rice Planting Machine An International Journal (ESTIJ), ISSN: 2454-5988
5* RICE PLANTING MACHINE NOV 16 TO OCT 17 An International Journal (ESTIJ)ISSN 0975 – 668
WEBSITE:-
www.google.co.inwww.youtube.comhttp://.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/riceBOOKS:-
A text-book of “theory of machine” by S.S.RATAN
Production Technology – R K Jain and S C Gupta