220.127.116.11 Extent of involvement in the Recycled Products
Plastic, paper, glass, scrap metals, aluminum are the common materials that were recycled. These were sourced from different places such as households, institutions, industries, farms, dumpsites and even in open spaces. Table 4.6, Chapter 4 shows the materials each of the companies recycled. A total of seven products were recycled, namely plastic, paper, glass, tires, scrap metals and e- waste. A total of eight (8) companies recycled plastic. Companies A and H recycled paper and company K was involved in e waste recycling. The breakdown of each of the materials is shown in table 4.6 in the same chapter. Companies E, J and N were recycling scrap metal. (3) CompaniesI, M and O were not involved in physical recycling of materials but their roles were more of managerial and supportive in nature. Company A had the highest range of recyclable products .Six products were recycled. Fivec ompanies B, C, D, E,J only recycled one (1) product as shown in Table 4.6.
These plastics as shown in table 4.7 in Chapter 4, were divided into two major categories, that is soft and hard plastic. Soft plastic was mainly carrier bags, sheeting, wrapping and packaging, whilst hard plastic was materials like wheelie bins, refuse bags, juice and water bottles, storage containers, HDP, PVC, UPVC pipes, chairs, tables, cutlery, crate boxes, detergents containers and tires.
Companies A and H were involved in paper recycling. Like plastic, paper was also grouped into two main categories as shown again in the same table 4.7. Paper was divided into white and brown categories. The white paper was mainly bond paper or printing paper, writing, newspapers, magazines, envelops and brown paper consisted of carton boxes, envelops and wrapping paper. In all cases, cardboard boxes were the most in volumes and this was explained by the officials that Namibia uses a lot of imported products and these come in various packages and cardboard-boxes were some of these. Hence, the large volumes of this waste stream.
Glass bottles was another product. Companies A, F, H, L, and N recycled glass bottles.The product was categorized according to color that is clear, brown and green. Clear bottles were mainly of milk, soft drinks and juice, whilst brown and green bottles were for beer, soft drinks and wine bottles.
Companies E, J and N which were in scrap metal recycling concentrated on two categories that are ferrous and non-ferrous as shown in the table. Company K was involved in e-waste recycling at the time of study. This was a Windhoek based company whose main business was transport and logistics and e-waste was being done as a sideline business. A variety of e-waste materials were being processed by the company such as computer monitors, printers, personal computers, computer mouse, keyboard cables, phones, swiping machines, and any other electrical electric kettles, hair brushes, microwaves which were sourced from industries, households and institutions.
18.104.22.168 Extent of Involvement in other activities
50% of the companies (A, B, G, I, l, M and O) were involved in recycling through other activities such as promotion, education and awareness raising on recycling. During the time of study, respondents were in agreement that much more still needed to be done with regards the public and industries awareness about the benefits of recycling. Based on the findings, 30 % of the companies studied were involved in general awareness and education about the need to support recycling in the country. The following companies were involved in promoting recycling efforts: company O, G, M, I and L. This section briefly outlines the activities of companies in this regard and an endeavor to change attitudes and behavior of people towards recycling.
Company O: The Local Authorities were not involved in physical activities of recycling. However, it was their responsibility to facilitate recycling activities inWindhoek. Company O in Windhoek which also doubled up as a local authority had to ensure that systems were well developed and implemented to manage the waste and any waste related activities because they were obliged to do so according to law. In addition, the company had the responsibility to ensure coordination among various stakeholders, in both public and private sector in as far as recycling is concerned. In order to control and regulate the companies involved in recycling activities, company O developed a Registration and Licensing System (RLS), for instance, contracts were issued to recycling companies for a period of 5 years. Through the strategy, recycling companies were compelled to register with the CoW and to submit Waste Management Plans of their recycling businesses as well as providing data pertaining to their operations. At the time of study, the study established that a number of small companies who had registered to be in the recycling business had stopped operations due to failure to meet all business requirements but the most crippling factors noted was financial and technological.
In addition to management tasks, company O was also involved in recycling education and public awareness. This awareness was in conjunction with other companies(B, D, M and L) and any other interested stakeholders like banks. In support of this, the researcher noted company O had a newsletter specifically for public awareness and clean–up campaigns program for 2015 for school education programs, public awareness and community meetings. The company thought that people’s attitudes and behaviour had to be changed to ensure the success of recycling as a waste minimization and prevention strategy. In Windhoek, public participation was mixed in this regard. Population in high income suburbs more receptive about the idea than some of the population in low income suburbs. Therefore, local authorities were instrumental to the success of recycling by promoting it, availing land for establishment of facilities and registration, licensing, monitoring and coordinating the efforts of recycling and waste management companies.
Company G: Through a telephone interview with the country representative, the researcher established that company G had been in operation for the past 25 years. The founder started the company to address proactively the steel beverage can industry’s waste. So the company was involved in facilitating the collection of beverage cans both aluminium and tin-plated steel cans around Namibia in partnership with other private partners. Having realized that some parts of the country had a lot of waste left littering the country side, company L, Namibia Beverages and Dresselhaus Transport assisted in the transportation of metal cans to Windhoek where the compressed scrap is sold to steel mills in South Africa. The company took the initiative to be involved in clean up campaigns as well as recovery and collection of beverage cans. It operates on the principle of people taking responsibility for their environment. According to records made available, since 1994 just over 809 tons of metal cans were removed from the environment, by 2015 the amount has increased six fold to an average yearly load of 4 000 tons being collected for recycling. In 2002, a record amount of more than 7 000 tons of cans were collected across Namibia. Apart from assisting with collection of cans, the company together with other private organizations promoted recycling through cleaning campaigns as well as sponsorship programs.
Company M: In 2008, company M was established by a group of individuals and organizations to promote and facilitate recycling in Namibia. The company partnered with different interested stakeholders in its efforts to establish collection points in different parts of the country. For example, in 2012, they partnered with the Global United Football Club Environmental Programme (GUFC) to place recycling stands in Henties Bay (coast). In 2013, Henties Bay became the focus of the GUFC activities with the Henties Bay Municipality as their main partner. According to the coordinator of the company, it was the mouthpiece of the Namibian recycling industry which was committed to promote the 3 R’s: recycling, reducing and reusing of solid waste. It was the aim of this company to successfully implement projects that raise awareness, and changed the behavior of Namibians to embrace the 3 R’s through projects such as the Schools Recycling Competition with the theme ‘Catch them young’, donation of recycling bins, clean up campaigns and provision of transport as the country was said to be still lagging behind in terms of the culture of recycling. A number of companies were reported joining the organization where networking in the promotion of the 3Rs was facilitated. As a result, the company found it imperative to bring different stakeholders together including the general public to share relevant information about recycling. Unfortunately, the company bemoaned limited data and information on recycling and that despite the enactment of the Environmental Management Act No.7 of 2007, waste management and in particular recycling, was not yet high on the agenda of most stakeholders sharing the same sentiments aired by company G.
Company L: Company L is committed to environmental protection among other social responsibilities outside their core business of brewing beverages. In order to achieve this, the company was involved in promoting recycling at the corporate level. During the production process, it was reported that their manufacturing business produced a lot of waste both liquid and solid. Solid waste generated was sorted on-site into plastic, glass (where possible, already colour-sorted), steel, aluminium and paper. Over 80% of all inorganic solid waste produced was collected and recycled by an accredited waste contractor. The waste contractor also provided, what it calls, File 13 containers for offices use. Its involvement is pronounced in Sponsorship of Schools recycling competition. The company recently added Namibia Wildlife Resorts – in particular the Okaukuejo and Halali rest camps – to its list of companies with collection points where it picked up recyclable raw material such as paper, glass, plastic and tins destined for its depot Windhoek. Company L was part of this, since the introduction of the initiative in 2010. The company sponsored a number of clean-up campaigns across the country and schools competitions. One of the schools in Windhoek won N$10 000 cash prize as part of the competition.
Company I: During the interview, with the Contract Manager of company I, it was revealed that the core business of this company was construction and management of landfill sites in some towns of Namibia. Although, it was not physically involved in recycling activities directly, the company was facilitating and managing logistics for picking and collection of recyclable raw material from landfill sites by waste pickers to recycling facilities.